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About LANDIS Landscape Disturbance and Succession model

Brian Sturtevant; Eric Gustafson; Steve Shifley; and Frank Thompson, III

LANDIS is a forest landscape model designed to simulate forest growth, competition, seed dispersal succession, and disturbances (including fire, wind, harvesting, insects, global change), across large (>1 million ha) landscapes.  LANDIS represents landscapes as a grid of cells and tracks age cohorts of each species (presence/absence or biomass) rather than individual trees.  LANDIS simulates distinct ecological processes, allowing complex interactions to play out as emergent properties of the simulation.

Background

LANDIS was developed beginning in the late 1990s with partial funding from the Northern Research Station, Rhinelander, Wisconsin.  Development was a joint effort among Dr. David Mladenoff (University of Wisconsin), Dr. Hong He (University of Missouri), Dr. Robert Scheller (Portland State University), Dr. Eric Gustafson (NRS) and Dr. Brian Sturtevant (NRS).  The current version (LANDIS-II) was designed using modern software engineering techniques and allows users to select from an extensive library of process-based modules (extensions) to customize the model for specific applications.

LANDIS-II is a modeling environment in which users “plug in” extensions that independently simulate specific processes or output specific cell or landscape attributes, each operating at a user-defined time step that is consistent with the process being modeled.  All extensions interact with the vegetation “currency” used to represent the tree cohorts existing in the landscape cells.  Current cohort “currency” options include age or biomass, with stem density becoming available in 2017.  

Cohort establishment, growth, competition and senescence mortality are modeled within LANDIS-II using a succession extension.  Currently available succession extensions include:

  • Age-only succession – simulates succession using the cohort age currency
  • Biomass Succession - simulates succession as competition for growing space using the cohort biomass currency
  • Forest Carbon Succession - derived from the CBM-CFS3 Forest Carbon model
  • BFOLDS Forest Succession – derived from the Canadian BFOLDS model
  • PnET Succession – derived from the PnET ecophysiology model to simulate photosynthesis as a competition for light and water with direct links to temperature and CO2 concentration
  • Net Ecosystem CN Succession – simulates succession as competition for growing space, and tracks above and below ground carbon, nitrogen and water

Disturbances remove some or all of the vegetation in cohorts found on the cells affected by the disturbance in each time step.  Each disturbance process is modeled either mechanistically or statistically (or a combination).  General types of disturbance extensions include:

  • Fire
  • Wind
  • Biological Disturbance Agents (e.g., insects, disease)
  • Harvest
  • Drought
  • Browse (e.g., deer, moose)

 

Downloads and Documentation
LANDIS II is Open Source. Software and source code are available without charge from The LANDIS-II Foundation at http://www.landis-ii.org/

 

LANDIS Related Publications


TitleAuthorYear
Modelling moose?forest interactions under different predation scenarios at Isle Royale National Park, USADe Jager, Nathan R.; Rohweder, Jason J.; Miranda, Brian R.; Sturtevant, Brian R.; Fox, Timothy J.; Romanski, Mark C.2017
Future forest aboveground carbon dynamics in the central United States: the importance of forest demographic processesJin, Wenchi; He, Hong S.; Thompson, Frank R.; Wang, Wen J.; Fraser, Jacob S.; Shifley, Stephen R.; Hanberry, Brice B.; Dijak, William D.2017
Do rising temperatures always increase forest productivity? Interacting effects of temperature, precipitation, cloudiness and soil texture on tree species growth and competitionGustafson, Eric J.; Miranda, Brian R.; De Bruijn, Arjan M.G.; Sturtevant, Brian R.; Kubiske, Mark E.2017
Simulating ungulate herbivory across forest landscapes: A browsing extension for LANDIS-IIDe Jager, Nathan R.; Drohan, Patrick J.; Miranda, Brian M.; Sturtevant, Brian R.; Stout, Susan L.; Royo, Alejandro A.; Gustafson, Eric J.; Romanski, Mark C.2017
The implications of American chestnut reintroduction on landscape dynamics and carbon storageGustafson, Eric J.; de Bruijn, Arjan; Lichti, Nathanael; Jacobs, Douglass F.; Sturtevant, Brian R.; Foster, Jane; Miranda, Brian R.; Dalgleish, Harmony J.2017
Recovery dynamics and climate change effects to future New England forestsDuveneck, Matthew J.; Thompson, Jonathan R.; Gustafson, Eric J.; Liang, Yu; de Bruijn, Arjan M. G.2017
The past and future of modeling forest dynamics: from growth and yield curves to forest landscape modelsShifley, Stephen R.; He, Hong S.; Lischke, Heike; Wang, Wen J.; Jin, Wenchi; Gustafson, Eric J.; Thompson, Jonathan R.; Thompson, Frank R.; Dijak, William D.; Yang, Jian2017
Multi-model comparison on the effects of climate change on tree species in the eastern U.S.: results from an enhanced niche model and process-based ecosystem and landscape modelsIverson, Louis R.; Thompson, Frank R.; Matthews, Stephen; Peters, Matthew; Prasad, Anantha; Dijak, William D.; Fraser, Jacob; Wang, Wen J.; Hanberry, Brice; He, Hong; Janowiak, Maria; Butler, Patricia; Brandt, Leslie; Swanston, Chris2016
Implications of mechanistic modeling of drought effects on growth and competition in forest landscape modelsGustafson, Eric J.; De Bruijn, Arjan M. G.; Miranda, Brian R.; Sturtevant, Brian R.; Thompson, J.2016
Landscape-and regional-scale shifts in forest composition under climate change in the Central Hardwood Region of the United StatesWang, Wen J.; He, Hong S.; Thompson, Frank R.; Fraser, Jacob S.; Dijak, William D.2016
Seeing the future impacts of climate change and forest management: a landscape visualization system for forest managersGustafson, Eric J.; Lucash, Melissa; Liem, Johannes; Jenny, Helen; Scheller, Rob; Barrett, Kelly; Sturtevant, Brian R.2016
Changes in forest biomass and tree species distribution under climate change in the northeastern United StatesWang, Wen J.; He, Hong S.; Thompson, Frank R.; Fraser, Jacob S.; Dijak, William D.2016
Bird response to future climate and forest management focused on mitigating climate changeLeBrun, Jaymi J.; Schneiderman, Jeffrey E.; Thompson, Frank R.; Dijak, William D.; Fraser, Jacob S.; He, Hong S.; Millspaugh, Joshua J.2016
Central Appalachians forest ecosystem vulnerability assessment and synthesis: a report from the Central Appalachians Climate Change Response Framework projectButler, Patricia R.; Iverson, Louis; Thompson, Frank R.; Brandt, Leslie; Handler, Stephen; Janowiak, Maria; Shannon, P. Danielle; Swanston, Chris; Karriker, Kent; Bartig, Jarel; Connolly, Stephanie; Dijak, William; Bearer, Scott; Blatt, Steve; Brandon, Andrea; Byers, Elizabeth; Coon, Cheryl; Culbreth, Tim; Daly, Jad; Dorsey, Wade; Ede, David; Euler, Chris; Gillies, Neil; Hix, David M.; Johnson, Catherine; Lyte, Latasha; Matthews, Stephen; McCarthy, Dawn; Minney, Dave; Murphy, Daniel; O?Dea, Claire; Orwan, Rachel; Peters, Matthew; Prasad, Anantha; Randall, Cotton; Reed, Jason; Sandeno, Cynthia; Schuler, Tom; Sneddon, Lesley; Stanley, Bill; Steele, Al; Stout, Susan; Swaty, Randy; Teets, Jason; Tomon, Tim; Vanderhorst, Jim; Whatley, John; Zegre, Nicholas.2015
Importance of succession, harvest, and climate change in determining future composition in US Central Hardwood ForestsWang, Wen J.; He, Hong S.; Thompson, Frank R.; Fraser, Jacob S.; Hanberry, Brice B.; Dijak, William D.2015
Integrating ecophysiology and forest landscape models to improve projections of drought effects under climate changeGustafson, Eric J.; De Bruijn, Arjan M.G.; Pangle, Robert E.; Limousin, Jean-Marc; McDowell, Nate G.; Pockman, William T.; Sturtevant, Brian R.; Muss, Jordan D.; Kubiske, Mark E.2015
LANDIS PRO: a landscape model that predicts forest composition and structure changes at regional scalesWang, Wen J.; He, Hong S.; Fraser, Jacob S.; Thompson, Frank R.; Shifley, Stephen R.; Spetich, Martin A.2014
A framework for evaluating forest landscape model predictions using empirical data and knowledge2014
Central Hardwoods ecosystem vulnerability assessment and synthesis: a report from the Central Hardwoods Climate Change Response Framework projectBrandt, Leslie; He, Hong; Iverson, Louis; Thompson, Frank R.; Butler, Patricia; Handler, Stephen; Janowiak, Maria; Shannon, P. Danielle; Swanston, Chris; Albrecht, Matthew; Blume-Weaver, Richard; Deizman, Paul; DePuy, John; Dijak, William D.; Dinkel, Gary; Fei, Songlin; Jones-Farrand, D. Todd; Leahy, Michael; Matthews, Stephen; Nelson, Paul; Oberle, Brad; Perez, Judi; Peters, Matthew; Prasad, Anantha; Schneiderman, Jeffrey E.; Shuey, John; Smith, Adam B.; Studyvin, Charles; Tirpak, John M.; Walk, Jeffery W.; Wang, Wen J.; Watts, Laura; Weigel, Dale; Westin, Steve.2014
Minnesota forest ecosystem vulnerability assessment and synthesis: a report from the Northwoods Climate Change Response Framework projectHandler, Stephen; Duveneck, Matthew J.; Iverson, Louis; Peters, Emily; Scheller, Robert M.; Wythers, Kirk R.; Brandt, Leslie; Butler, Patricia; Janowiak, Maria; Shannon, P. Danielle; Swanston, Chris; Barrett, Kelly; Kolka, Randy; McQuiston, Casey; Palik, Brian; Reich, Peter B.; Turner, Clarence; White, Mark; Adams, Cheryl; D'Amato, Anthony; Hagell, Suzanne; Johnson, Patricia; Johnson, Rosemary; Larson, Mike; Matthews, Stephen; Montgomery, Rebecca; Olson, Steve; Peters, Matthew; Prasad, Anantha; Rajala, Jack; Daley, Jad; Davenport, Mae; Emery, Marla R.; Fehringer, David; Hoving, Christopher L.; Johnson, Gary; Johnson, Lucinda; Neitzel, David; Rissman, Adena; Rittenhouse, Chadwick; Ziel, Robert.2014
Impacts of fire and climate change on long-term nitrogen availability and forest productivity in the New Jersey Pine BarrensLucash, Melissa S.; Scheller, Robert M.; Kretchun, Alec M.; Clark, Kenneth L.; Hom, John.2014
Forest ecosystem vulnerability assessment and synthesis for northern Wisconsin and western Upper Michigan: a report from the Northwoods Climate Change Response Framework projectJanowiak, Maria K.; Iverson, Louis R.; Mladenoff, David J.; Peters, Emily; Wythers, Kirk R.; Xi, Weimin; Brandt, Leslie A.; Butler, Patricia R.; Handler, Stephen D.; Shannon, P. Danielle; Swanston, Chris; Parker, Linda R.; Amman, Amy J.; Bogaczyk, Brian; Handler, Christine; Lesch, Ellen; Reich, Peter B.; Matthews, Stephen; Peters, Matthew; Prasad, Anantha; Khanal, Sami; Liu, Feng; Bal, Tara; Bronson, Dustin; Burton, Andrew; Ferris, Jim; Fosgitt, Jon; Hagan, Shawn; Johnston, Erin; Kane, Evan; Matula, Colleen; O'Connor, Ryan; Higgins, Dale; St. Pierre, Matt; Daley, Jad; Davenport, Mae; Emery, Marla R.; Fehringer, David; Hoving, Christopher L.; Johnson, Gary; Neitzel, David; Notaro, Michael; Rissman, Adena; Rittenhouse, Chadwick; Ziel, Robert.2014
Toward more robust projections of forest landscape dynamics under novel environmental conditions: embedding PnET within LANDIS-II2014
Using scenario modeling for red spruce restoration planning in West VirginiaThomas-Van Gundy, Melissa A.; Sturtevant, Brian R.2014
Predicted effects of gypsy moth defoliation and climate change on forest carbon dynamics in the New Jersey Pine BarrensKretchun, Alec M.; Scheller, Robert M.; Lucash, Melissa S.; Clark, Kenneth L.; Hom, John; Van Tuyl, Steve; Fine, Michael L.2014
Michigan forest ecosystem vulnerability assessment and synthesis: a report from the Northwoods Climate Change Response Framework projectHandler, Stephen; Duveneck, Matthew J.; Iverson, Louis; Peters, Emily; Scheller, Robert M.; Wythers, Kirk R.; Brandt, Leslie; Butler, Patricia; Janowiak, Maria; Shannon, P. Danielle; Swanston, Chris; Eagle, Amy Clark; Cohen, Joshua G.; Corner, Rich; Reich, Peter B.; Baker, Tim; Chhin, Sophan; Clark, Eric; Fehringer, David; Fosgitt, Jon; Gries, James; Hall, Christine; Hall, Kimberly R.; Heyd, Robert; Hoving, Christopher L.; Iba?ez, Ines; Kuhr, Don; Matthews, Stephen; Muladore, Jennifer; Nadelhoffer, Knute; Neumann, David; Peters, Matthew; Prasad, Anantha; Sands, Matt; Swaty, Randy; Wonch, Leiloni; Daley, Jad; Davenport, Mae; Emery, Marla R.; Johnson, Gary; Johnson, Lucinda; Neitzel, David; Rissman, Adena; Rittenhouse, Chadwick; Ziel, Robert.2014
Modeling forest mortality caused by drought stress: implications for climate changeGustafson, Eric J; Sturtevant, Brian R.2013
Simulating stand-level harvest prescriptions across landscapes: LANDIS PRO harvest module designFraser, Jacob S.; He, Hong S.; Shifley, Stephen R.; Wang, Wen J.; Thompson, Frank R.2013
Landscape Builder: software for the creation of initial landscapes for LANDIS from FIA dataDijak, William.2013
Scaling Aspen-FACE experimental results to century and landscape scalesGustafson, Eric J.; Kubiske, Mark E.; Sturtevant, Brian R.; Miranda, Brian R.2013
A large-scale forest landscape model incorporating multi-scale processes and utilizing forest inventory data2013
Divergent carbon dynamics under climate change in forests with diverse soils, tree species, and land use historiesScheller, Robert M.; Kretchun, Alec M.; Van Tuyl, Steve; Clark, Kenneth L.; Lucash, Melissa S.; Hom, John.2012
Integrating LANDIS model and a multi-criteria decision-making approach to evaluate cumulative effects of forest management in the Missouri Ozarks, USAShang, Zong Bo; He, Hong S.; Xi, Weimin; Shifley, Stephen R.; Palik, Brian J.2012
Comparing modern and presettlement forest dynamics of a subboreal wilderness: Does spruce budworm enhance fire risk?Sturtevant, Brian R; Miranda, Brian R; Shinneman, Douglas J; Gustafson, Eric J; Wolter, Peter T.2012
Can landscape-level ecological restoration influence fire risk? A spatially-explicit assessment of a northern temperate-southern boreal forest landscapeShinneman, Douglas J.; Palik, Brian J.; Cornett, Meredith W.2012
An innovative computer design for modeling forest landscape change in very large spatial extents with fine resolutionsYang, Jian; He, Hong S.; Shifley, Stephen R.; Thompson, Frank R.; Zhang, Yangjian.2011
Chapter 13 Application of landscape and habitat suitability models to conservation: the Hoosier National Forest land-management planRittenhouse, Chadwick D.; Shifley, Stephen R.; Dijak, William D.; Fan, Zhaofei; Thompson, Frank R., III; Millspaugh, Joshua J.; Perez, Judith A.; Sandeno, Cynthia M.2011
Evaluating the effects of alternative forest management plans under various physiographic settings using historical records as a referenceZhang, Yangjian; He, Hong S.; Shifley, Stephen R.; Yang, Jian; Palik, Brian J.2011
Simulating the interactions of forest structure, fire regime, and plant invasion in the southern Appalachians using LANDISXi, Weimin; Chen, Szu-Hung; Birt, Andrew G.; Waldron, John D.; Lafon, Charles W.; Cairns, David M.; Tchakerian, Maria D.; Klepzig, Kier D.; Coulson, Robert N.2011
Carbon sequestration in the New Jersey Pine Barrens under different scenarios of fire managementScheller, Robert M.; Van Tuyl, Steve; Clark, Kenneth L.; Hom, John; La Puma, Inga.2011
Effectiveness of forest management strategies to mitigate effects of global change in south-central SiberiaGustafson, Eric J.; Shvidenko, Anatoly Z.; Scheller, Robert M.2011
Ecosystem vulnerability assessment and synthesis: a report from the Climate Change Response Framework Project in northern WisconsinSwanston, Chris; Janowiak, Maria; Iverson, Louis; Parker, Linda; Mladenoff, David; Brandt, Leslie; Butler, Patricia; St. Pierre, Matt; Prasad, Anantha; Matthews, Stephen; Peters, Matthew; Higgins, Dale; Dorland, Avery.2011
Predicting global change effects on forest biomass and composition in south-central SiberiaGustafson, Eric; Shvidenko, Anatoly D.; Sturtevant, Brian R.; Scheller, Robert M.2010
Forest insect defoliation and carbon dynamics: simulating multiple defoliator outbreaks in mixed deciduous landscapes with LANDIS-IIFoster, Jane; Scheller, Robert; Sturtevant, Brian; Townsend, Phillip; Mladenoff, David2010
Using LANDIS II to study the effects of global change in SiberiaGustafson, Eric J.; Sturtevant, Brian R.; Shvidenko, Anatoly Z.; Scheller, Robert M.2010
Red spruce restoration modeling in LANDISThomas-Van Gundy, Melissa.2010
Simulating restoration strategies for a southern boreal forest landscape with complex land ownership patternsShinneman, Douglas J.; Cornett, Meredith W.; Palik, Brian J.2010
Using landscape disturbance and succession models to support forest managementGustafson, Eric J.; Sturtevant, Brian R.; Shvidenko, Anatoly S.; Scheller, Robert M.2010
Increasing the reliability of ecological models using modern software engineering techniquesScheller, Robert M.; Sturtevant, Brian R.; Gustafson, Eric J.; Ward, Brendan C.; Mladenoff, David J.2009
Simulating impacts of invasive plants in southern Appalachian landscapes using LANDISXi, Weimin; Lafon, Charles W.; Cairns, David M.; Waldron, John D.; Tchakerian, Maria D.; Klepzig, Kier D.; Coulston, Robert N.2009
Studying fire mitigation strategies in multi-ownership landscapes: balancing the management of fire-dependent ecosystems and fire riskSturtevant, Brian R.; Miranda, Brian R.; Yang, Jian; He, Hong S.; Gustafson, Eric J.; Scheller, Robert M.2009
Modeling fire and other disturbance processes using LANDISShifley, Stephen R.; Yang, Jian; He, Hong2009
Simulating dynamic and mixed-severity fire regimes: a process-based fire extension for LANDIS-IISturtevant, Brian R.; Scheller, Robert M.; Miranda, Brian R.; Shinneman, Douglas.; Syphard, Alexandra.2009
Forest forming process and dynamic vegetation models under global changeShvidenko, A.; Gustafson, E.2009
Border Lakes land-cover classificationBauer, Marvin; Loeffelholz, Brian; Shinneman, Doug.2009
Simulated effects of climate change, fragmentation, and inter-specific competition on tree species migration in northern Wisconsin, USAScheller, Robert M.; Mladenoff, David J.2008
Spatial controls of occurrence and spread of wildfires in the Missouri Ozark HighlandsYang, Jian; He, Hong S.; Shifley, Stephen R.2008
Influence of forest planning alternatives on landscape pattern and ecosystem processes in northern Wisconsin, USAZollner, Patrick A.; Roberts, L. Jay; Gustafson, Eric J.; He, Hong S.; Radeloff, Volker2008
Forecasting landscape-scale, cumulative effects of forest management on vegetation and wildlife habitat: a case study of issues, limitations, and opportunitiesShifley, Stephen R.; Thompson, Frank R.; Dijak, William D.; Fan, Zhaofei F.2008
Comparing effects of fire modeling methods on simulated fire patterns and succession: a case study in the Missouri OzarksYang, Jian; He, Hong S.; Sturtevant, Brian R.; Miranda, Brian R.; Gustafson, Eric J.2008
Design, development, and application of LANDIS-II, a spatial landscape simulation model with flexible temporal and spatial resolutionScheller, Robert M.; Domingo, James B.; Sturtevant, Brian R.; Williams, Jeremy S.; Rudy, Arnold; Gustafson, Eric J.; Mladenoff, David J.2007
Simulated effects of forest management alternatives on landscape structure and habitat suitability in the Midwestern United StatesShifley, Stephen R.; Thompson, Frank R., III; Dijak, William D.; Larson, Michael A.; Millspaugh, Joshua J.2006
Modeling forest harvesting effects on landscape pattern in the Northwest Wisconsin Pine BarrensRadeloff, Volker C.; Mladenoff, David J.; Gustafson, Eric J.; Scheller, Robert M.; Zollner, Patrick A.; Heilman, Hong S.; Akcakaya, H. Resit2006
Modeling the Influence of Dynamic Zoning of Forest Harvesting on Ecological Succession in a Northern Hardwoods LandscapeZollner, Patrick A.; Gustafson, Eric J.; He, Hong S.; Radeloff, Volker C.; Mladenoff, David J.2005
LANDIS 4.0 users guide. LANDIS: a spatially explicit model of forest landscape disturbance, management, and successionHe, Hong S.; Li, Wei; Sturtevant, Brian R.; Yang, Jian; Shang, Bo Z.; Gustafson, Eric J.; Mladenoff, David J.2005
Latin hypercube sampling and geostatistical modeling of spatial uncertainty in a spatially explicit forest landscape model simulationXu, Chonggang; He, Hong S.; Hu, Yuanman; Chang, Yu; Li, Xiuzhen; Bu, Rencang2005
Modeling disturbance and succession in forest landscapes using LANDIS: introductionSturtevant, Brian R.; Gustafson, Eric J.; He, Hong S.2004
Simulated cavity tree dynamics under alternative timber harvest regimes2004
Human influence on the abundance and connectivity of high-risk fuels in mixed forests of northern Wisconsin, USASturtevant, Brian R.; Zollner, Patrick A.; Gustafson, Eric J.; Cleland, David T.2004
Modeling biological disturbances in LANDIS: a module description and demonstration using spruce budwormSturtevant, Brian R.; Gustafson, Eric J.; Li, Wei; He, Hong S.2004
Human influence on the abundance and connectivity of high-risk fuels in mixed forests of northern Wisconsin, USA2004
Linking population viability, habitat suitability, and landscape simulation models for conservation planningLarson, Michael A.; Thompson, Frank R., III; Millspaugh, Joshua J.; Dijak, William D.; Shifley, Stephen R.2004
A hierarchical fire frequency model to simulate temporal patterns of fire regimes in LANDISYang, Jian; He, Hong S.; Gustafson, Eric J.2004
Simulating forest fuel and fire risk dynamics across landscapes--LANDIS fuel module designHe, Hong S.; Shang, Bo Z.; Crow, Thomas R.; Gustafson, Eric J.; Shifley, Stephen R.2004
Influence of forest management alternatives and land type on susceptibility to fire in northern Wisconsin, USAGustafson, Eric J.; Zollner, Patrick A.; Sturtevant, Brian R.; Hong, S. He; Mladenoff, David J.2004
Study of landscape change under forest harvesting and climate warming-induced fire disturbanceHong, S. He; Mladenoff, David J.; Gustafson, Eric J.2002
Utilizing inventory information to calibrate a landscape simulation modelShifley, Steven R.; Thompson, Frank R., III; Larsen, David R.; Mladenoff, David J.; Gustafson, Eric J.2000
Model forest landscape change in the Missouri Ozarks under alternative management practicesShifley, Stephen R.; Thompson, Frank R.; Larsen , David R.; Dijak, William D.2000
Spatial simulation of forest succession and timber harvesting using LANDISGustafson, Eric J.; Shifley, Stephen R.; Mladenoff, David J.; Nimerfro, Kevin K.; He, Hong S.2000
The effects of seed dispersal on the simulation of long-term forest landscape changeHe, Hong S.; Mladenoff, David J.1999
Spatially explicit and stochastic simulation of forest landscape fire disturbance and successionHe, Hong S.; Mladenoff, David J.1999
Linking an ecosystem model and a landscape model to study forest species response to climate warmingHe, Hong S.; Mladenoff, David J.; Crow, Thomas R.1999
An object-oriented forest landscape model and its representation of tree speciesHe, Hong S.; Mladenoff, David J.; Boeder, Joel1999
Modeling forest landscape change in the Ozarks: guiding principles and preliminary implementationShifley, Stephen R.; Thompson, Frank R., III; Larsen, David R.; Mladenoff, David J.1997

Other Publications

Title Author Year
Oak decline in the Boston Mountains, Arkansas, USA: Spatial and temporal patterns under two fire regimes. Spetich, M.A.; and He, H.S. 2008

 

 

Last Modified: December 8, 2016