New Station Publications

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Northern Research Station

  1.  GTR-NRS-169.  The Forestry Reclamation Approach: guide to successful reforestation of mined lands.  Adams, Mary Beth.  128p.  

Appalachian forests are among the most productive and diverse in the world. The land underlying them is also rich in coal, and surface mines operated on more than 2.4 million acres in the region from 1977, when the federal Surface Mining Control and Reclamation Act was passed, through 2015. Many efforts to reclaim mined lands most often resulted in the establishment of grasses, shrubs, and nonnative plants. Research showed that forests could be returned to these mined lands, also restoring the potential for the land to provide forest ecosystem services and goods. Scientists and practitioners developed a set of science-based best management practices for mine reforestation called the Forestry Reclamation Approach (FRA). To help practitioners implement the 5 steps of the FRA and achieve other restoration goals (such as wildlife enhancement), 13 Forest Reclamation Advisories have been written since 2005 and others are underway. The 12 Advisories that are most directly relevant to the Appalachian region are being published here in a single volume for the first time. These Advisories were originally posted on the Web site of the Appalachian Regional Reforestation Initiative (ARRI), an organization created in 2004 by the U.S. Department of the Interior’s Office of Surface Mining Reclamation and Enforcement along with State mining regulatory authorities in the Appalachian region. Members of ARRI come from the coal mining industry, government agencies, and research institutions. The goal of this initiative is to promote forest reclamation and restoration on mine lands through planting of high-value hardwood trees, increasing those trees’ survival rates and growth, and speeding the establishment of forest habitat through natural succession. To accomplish these goals, ARRI promotes and encourages use of the FRA by reclamation specialists. The Advisories are intended to serve as easy-to-understand guides to implementing the FRA; they provide specific recommendations as well as illustrations and photos to demonstrate tasks. The reformatted Advisories in this volume contain updated information and the latest additional resources to guide reclamation practitioners and other stakeholders in the reestablishment of healthy, productive forests in the Appalachian region.

 

  2.  GTR-NRS-170.  Assessment and valuation of forest ecosystem services: State of the science review.  Binder, Seth; Haight, Robert G.; Polasky, Stephen; Warziniack, Travis; Mockrin, Miranda H.; Deal, Robert L.; Arthaud, Greg.  47p.  

This review focuses on the assessment and economic valuation of ecosystem services from forest ecosystems—that is, our ability to predict changes in the quantity and value of ecosystem services as a result of specific forest management decisions. It is aimed at forest economists and managers and intended to provide a useful reference to those interested in developing the practice of integrated forest modeling and valuation. We review examples of ecosystem services associated with several broad classes of potentially competing forest uses—production of timber, sequestration of carbon, regulation of the quality and quantity of water, provision of residential and recreational amenities, and protection of endangered species. For each example considered, we briefly describe what is known about ecological production functions and economic benefits functions. We also highlight the challenges and best practices in the creation and use of this knowledge. In the final section, we discuss the process, strengths, pitfalls, and limitations of utilizing integrated models for benefit-cost analysis of proposed forest management activities.

 

  3.  GTR-NRS-171.  Site-specific critical acid load estimates for forest soils in the Osborn Creek watershed, Michigan.  Hobbs, Trevor; Lynch, Jason; Kolka, Randy.  49p.  

Anthropogenic acid deposition has the potential to accelerate leaching of soil cations, and in turn, deplete nutrients essential to forest vegetation. The critical load concept, employing a simple mass balance (SMB) approach, is often used to model this process. In an evaluation under the U.S. Forest Service Watershed Condition Framework program, soils in all 6th level watersheds on the Huron-Manistee National Forests (HMNF) in Michigan were assigned the lowest score of "3—Impaired Function" due to exceedance of the critical load of acidity as determined by national-scale estimates. The impetus for this research was to test the relevance of national-scale critical acid load estimates at the 6th level watershed scale by using site-specific field data in the SMB model where possible. The Osborn Creek watershed on the HMNF served as a case study. Field data were collected to estimate soil mineral weathering rates, nutrient uptake rates, and forest growth characteristics at five sites containing sandy, nutrient-poor soils. Critical acid loads and exceedances were developed under "best" and "worst" case scenarios given the uncertainty in the SMB model. Despite the high likelihood of actual exceedance and some evidence for soil acidification across the watershed, base saturation remains excessively high (>100 percent) at most sites. Other field data suggest that these soils receive significant external inputs of base cations that may outweigh what is produced through weathering onsite within the rooting zone. Trees show no visible signs of decline. Overall, the SMB approach may not adequately capture the complexity of nutrient cycling at all of the sample sites. The variability of soils, weathering estimates, and nutrient uptake rates between and within sites makes extrapolation of these results to other HMNF watersheds difficult to justify. Management programs aimed at improving our understanding of base cycling in complex glacial terrain, as well as mitigating the risks associated with nutrient depletion from frequent timber harvests and fuels reduction practices, are suggested.

 

  4.  RB-NRS-111.  Pennsylvania forests 2014.  Albright, Thomas A.; McWilliams, William H.; Widmann, Richard H.; Butler, Brett J.; Crocker, Susan J.; Kurtz, Cassandra M.; Lehman, Shawn; Lister, Tonya W.; Miles, Patrick D.; Morin, Randall S.; Riemann, Rachel; Smith, James E.  140p.  

This report summarizes the third cycle of annualized inventory of Pennsylvania with field data collected from 2009 through 2014. Pennsylvania has 16.9 million acres of forest land dominated by sawtimber stands of oak/hickory and maple/beech/birch forest-type groups. Volumes continue to increase as the forests age with an average of 2,244 cubic feet per acre on timberland. Sawtimber volume has risen 24 percent in 10 years to 115 billion board feet. Net growth outpaced removals by a ratio of 2.4:1 on timberland. Additional information on land-use change, fragmentation, ownership, forest composition, structure and age distribution, carbon stocks, regeneration, invasive plants, insect pests, and wood products is also presented. Sets of supplemental tables are available online at https://doi.org/10.2737/NRS-RB-111 and contain: 1) tables that summarize quality assurance and 2) a core set of tabular estimates for a variety of forest resources.
On September 6, 2017, the text on page 85 and figure 62A on page 87 were updated.

 

Copies still available

The following are part of Urban and Community Forests report collection. For more information, visit https://www.nrs.fs.fed.us/data/urban/

  5.  GTR-NRS-38.  Urban and community forests of New England: Connecticut, Maine, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, Rhode Island, Vermont.  Nowak, David J.; Greenfield, Eric J.  1-62p.  

This report details how land cover and urbanization vary within the states of Connecticut, Maine, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, Rhode Island, and Vermont by community (incorporated and census designated places), county subdivision, and county. Specifically this report provides critical urban and community forestry information for each state including human population characteristics and trends, changes in urban and community lands, tree canopy and impervious surface cover characteristics, distribution of land-cover classes, a relative comparison of urban and community forests among local government types, determination of priority areas for tree planting, and a summary of urban tree benefits. Report information can improve the understanding, management, and planning of urban and community forests. The data from this report is reported for each state on the CD provided in the back of this book, and it may be accessed by state at: http://www.nrs.fs.fed.us/data/urban.

 

  6.  GTR-NRS-47.  Urban and community forests of the Mid-Atlantic region: New Jersey, New York, Pennsylvania.  Nowak, David J.; Greenfield, Eric J.  38 pp.  

This report details how land cover and urbanization vary within the states of New Jersey, New York, and Pennsylvania by community (incorporated and census designated places), county subdivision, and county. Specifically this report provides critical urban and community forestry information for each state including human population characteristics and trends, changes in urban and community lands, tree canopy and impervious surface cover characteristics, distribution of land-cover classes, a relative comparison of urban and community forests among local government types, determination of priority areas for tree planting, and a summary of urban tree benefits. Report information can improve the understanding, management, and planning of urban and community forests. The data from this report is reported for each state on the CD provided in the back of this book, and it may be accessed by state at: http://www.nrs.fs.fed.us/data/urban.

 

  7.  GTR-NRS-50.  Urban and community forests of the Southern Atlantic region: Delaware, District of Columbia, Florida, Georgia, Maryland, North Carolina, South Carolina, Virginia, West Virginia.  Nowak, David J.; Greenfield, Eric J.  1-85p.  

This report details how land cover and urbanization vary within the states of Delaware, Florida, Georgia, Maryland, North Carolina, South Carolina, Virginia, and West Virginia; and the District of Columbia by community (incorporated and census designated places), county subdivision, and county. Specifically this report provides critical urban and community forestry information for each state including human population characteristics and trends, changes in urban and community lands, tree canopy and impervious surface cover characteristics, distribution of land-cover classes, a relative comparison of urban and community forests among local government types, determination of priority areas for tree planting, and a summary of urban tree benefits. Report information can improve the understanding, management, and planning of urban and community forests. This data is reported for each state on the CD provided in the back of this book and may be accessed by state at: http://www.nrs.fs.fed.us/data/urban.

 

  8.  GTR-NRS-54.  Urban and community forests of the North Central East region: Illinois, Indiana, Michigan, Ohio, Wisconsin.  Nowak, David J.; Greenfield, Eric J.  56 Pp.  

This report details how land cover and urbanization vary within the states of Illinois, Indiana, Michigan, Ohio, and Wisconsin by community (incorporated and census designated places), county subdivision, and county. Specifically this report provides critical urban and community forestry information for each state including human population characteristics and trends, changes in urban and community lands, tree canopy and impervious surface cover characteristics, distribution of land-cover classes, a relative comparison of urban and community forests among local government types, determination of priority areas for tree planting, and a summary of urban tree benefits. Report information can improve the understanding, management, and planning of urban and community forests. This data is reported for each state on the CD provided in the back of this book and may be accessed by state at: http://www.nrs.fs.fed.us/data/urban.

 

  9.  GTR-NRS-56.  Urban and community forests of the North Central West region: Iowa, Kansas, Minnesota, Missouri, Nebraska, North Dakota, South Dakota.  Nowak, David J.; Greenfield, Eric J.  70p.  

This report details how land cover and urbanization vary within the states of Iowa, Kansas, Minnesota, Missouri, Nebraska, North Dakota, and South Dakota by community (incorporated and census designated places), county subdivision, and county. Specifically this report provides critical urban and community forestry information for each state including human population characteristics and trends, changes in urban and community lands, tree canopy and impervious surface cover characteristics, distribution of land-cover classes, a relative comparison of urban and community forests among local government types, determination of priority areas for tree planting, and a summary of urban tree benefits. Report information can improve the understanding, management, and planning of urban and community forests. This data is reported for each state on the CD provided in the back of this book and may be accessed by state at:
http://www.nrs.fs.fed.us/data/urban.

 

  10.  GTR-NRS-58.  Urban and community forests of the South Central East region: Alabama, Kentucky, Mississippi, Tennessee.  Nowak, David J.; Greenfield, Eric J.  46p.  

This report details how land cover and urbanization vary within the states of Alabama, Kentucky, Mississippi, and Tennessee by community (incorporated and census designated places), county subdivision, and county. Specifically this report provides critical urban and community forestry information for each state including human population characteristics and trends, changes in urban and community lands, tree canopy and impervious surface cover characteristics, distribution of land-cover classes, a relative comparison of urban and community forests among local government types, determination of priority areas for tree planting, and a summary of urban tree benefits. Report information can improve the understanding, management, and planning of urban and community forests. This data is reported for each state on the CD provided in the back of this book and may be accessed by state at: http://www.nrs.fs.fed.us/data/urban.

 

  11.  GTR-NRS-59.  Urban and community forests of the South Central West region: Arkansas, Louisiana, Oklahoma, Texas.  Nowak, David J.; Greenfield, Eric J.  46p.  

This report details how land cover and urbanization vary within the states of Arkansas, Louisiana, Oklahoma, and Texas by community (incorporated and census designated places), county subdivision, and county. Specifically this report provides critical urban and community forestry information for each state including human population characteristics and trends, changes in urban and community lands, tree canopy and impervious surface cover characteristics, distribution of land-cover classes, a relative comparison of urban and community forests among local government types, determination of priority areas for tree planting, and a summary of urban tree benefits. Report information can improve the understanding, management, and planning of urban and community forests. This data is reported for each state on the CD provided in the back of this book and may be accessed by state at: http://www.nrs.fs.fed.us/data/urban.

 

  12.  GTR-NRS-63.  Urban and community forests of the Mountain region: Arizona, Colorado, Idaho, Montana, Nevada, New Mexico, Utah, Wyoming.  Nowak, David J.; Greenfield, Eric J.  78p.  

This report details how land cover and urbanization vary within the states of Arizona, Colorado, Idaho, Montana, Nevada, New Mexico, Utah, and Wyoming by community (incorporated and census designated places), county subdivision, and county. Specifically this report provides critical urban and community forestry information for each state including human population characteristics and trends, changes in urban and community lands, tree canopy and impervious surface cover characteristics, distribution of land-cover classes, a relative comparison of urban and community forests among local government types, determination of priority areas for tree planting, and a summary of urban tree benefits. Report information can improve the understanding, management, and planning of urban and community forests. This data is reported for each state on the CD provided in the back of this book and may be accessed by state at: http://www.nrs.fs.fed.us/data/urban.

 

  13.  GTR-NRS-65.  Urban and community forests of the Pacific region: California, Oregon, Washington.  Nowak, David J.; Greenfield, Eric J.  38p.  

This report details how land cover and urbanization vary within the states of California, Oregon, and Washington by community (incorporated and census designated places), county subdivision, and county. Specifically this report provides critical urban and community forestry information for each state including human population characteristics and trends, changes in urban and community lands, tree canopy and impervious surface cover characteristics, distribution of land-cover classes, a relative comparison of urban and community forests among local government types, determination of priority areas for tree planting, and a summary of urban tree benefits. Report information can improve the understanding, management, and planning of urban and community forests. This data is reported for each state on the CD provided in the back of this book and may be accessed by state at: http://www.nrs.fs.fed.us/data/urban.

 

Available Online Only

14.  RU-FS-118.  North Dakota timber industry, 2014.  Haugen, David E.; Harsel, Robert A.  5p.  

This resource update provides an overview of timber product output (TPO) and use in North Dakota based on questionnaires designed to determine the size and composition of the State's primary wood-using industry, its use of roundwood, and its generation and disposition of wood residues. This study was a cooperative effort between the North Dakota Forest Service (NDFS) and the Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) program at the Northern Research Station (NRS) of the U.S. Forest Service. The NDFS surveys all known primary woodusing mills and FIA processes and analyzes the survey responses. This update presents results from the 2014 survey with comparisons to the 2009 survey. The data were accessed from the FIA database in November 2016. Certain terms used in this report–retained, export, import, production, and receipts–have specialized meanings and relationships unique to the FIA program that surveys timber product output.

 

15.  RU-FS-125.  Wisconsin timber industry, 2013.  Haugen, David E.  5p.  

This resource update provides an overview of timber product output (TPO) and use in Wisconsin based on questionnaires designed to determine the size and composition of the State's primary wood-using industry, its use of roundwood, and its generation and disposition of wood residues. This study was a cooperative effort between the Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources (WI-DNR) and the Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) program at the Northern Research Station (NRS) of the USDA Forest Service. The WI-DNR surveyed all known primary wood-using mills and FIA processed and analyzed the survey responses. This update presents results from the 2013 survey with comparisons to the 2008 survey. The data were accessed from the FIA database in June 2016. Certain terms used in this report—retained, export, import, production, and receipts—have specialized meanings and relationships unique to the FIA program that surveys timber product output (Fig. 1). A complete set of inventory tables is available at https://doi.org/10.2737/FS-RU-125.

 

Resource Update

The following publications provide an overview of forest resource attributes for the respective State based on an annual inventory conducted by the Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) program at the Northern Research Station of the U.S. Forest Service. These are available only online.


RU-FS-119.  Forests of Vermont, 2016.  Morin, R.S.; Domke, G.M.; Walters, B.F.; Wilmot, S.  4p.  

RU-FS-120.  Forests of Missouri, 2016.  Piva, Ronald J.; Treiman, Thomas B.  4p.  

RU-FS-123.  Forests of West Virginia, 2016.  Morin, Randall S.; Domke, Grant M.; Walters, Brian F.  4p.  

RU-FS-124.  Forests of New Hampshire, 2016.  Morin, Randall S.; Lombard, Kyle.  4p.  

RU-FS-127.  Forests of Indiana, 2016.  Gormanson, Dale D.; Kurtz, Cassandra M.  4p.  

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