New Station Publications

Welcome to the electronic version of the Northern Research Station's New Publications List 2 - 2015

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Northern Research Station

  1.  GTR-NRS-136.  Forest ecosystem vulnerability assessment and synthesis for northern Wisconsin and western Upper Michigan: a report from the Northwoods Climate Change Response Framework project.  Janowiak, Maria K.; Iverson, Louis R.; Mladenoff, David J.; Peters, Emily; Wythers, Kirk R.; Xi, Weimin; Brandt, Leslie A.; Butler, Patricia R.; Handler, Stephen D.; Shannon, P. Danielle; Swanston, Chris; Parker, Linda R.; Amman, Amy J.; Bogaczyk, Brian; Handler, Christine; Lesch, Ellen; Reich, Peter B.; Matthews, Stephen; Peters, Matthew; Prasad, Anantha; Khanal, Sami; Liu, Feng; Bal, Tara; Bronson, Dustin; Burton, Andrew; Ferris, Jim; Fosgitt, Jon; Hagan, Shawn; Johnston, Erin; Kane, Evan; Matula, Colleen; O'Connor, Ryan; Higgins, Dale; St. Pierre, Matt; Daley, Jad; Davenport, Mae; Emery, Marla R.; Fehringer, David; Hoving, Christopher L.; Johnson, Gary; Neitzel, David; Notaro, Michael; Rissman, Adena; Rittenhouse, Chadwick; Ziel, Robert.  247p.  

Forest ecosystems across the Northwoods will face direct and indirect impacts from a changing climate over the 21st century. This assessment evaluates the vulnerability of forest ecosystems in the Laurentian Mixed Forest Province of northern Wisconsin and western Upper Michigan under a range of future climates. Information on current forest conditions, observed climate trends, projected climate changes, and impacts to forest ecosystems was considered in order to assess vulnerability to climate change. Upland spruce-fir, lowland conifers, aspen-birch, lowland-riparian hardwoods, and red pine forests were determined to be the most vulnerable ecosystems. White pine and oak forests were perceived as less vulnerable to projected changes in climate. These projected changes in climate and the associated impacts and vulnerabilities will have important implications for economically valuable timber species, forest-dependent wildlife and plants, recreation, and long-term natural resource planning.


  2.  GTR-NRS-137.  Islands on the edge: housing development and other threats to America's Pacific and Caribbean Island forests: a Forests on the Edge report.  Stein, Susan M.; Carr, Mary A.; Liknes, Greg C.; Comas, Sara J.  55p.  

This report provides an overview of expected housing density changes and related impacts to private forests on America's islands in the Pacific and Caribbean, specifically Hawaii, Guam, American Samoa, the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands, Puerto Rico, and the U.S. Virgin Islands. We discuss the vulnerability of island forests to conversion for housing development, introduction and spread of invasive species, and risk of uncharacteristic wildfire, among other concerns. Our maps and projections suggest that in localized areas from 3 to 25 percent of private forest land is likely to experience a substantial increase in housing density from 2000 to 2030. Resource managers, developers, community leaders, and landowners should consider the impacts of housing development and invasive species on ecosystem services in coming decades.


  3.  GTR-NRS-139.  Monitoring ash (Fraxinus spp.) decline and emerald ash borer (Agrilus planipennis) symptoms in infested areas.  Knight, Kathleen S.; Flash, Britton P.; Kappler, Rachel H.; Throckmorton, Joel A.; Grafton, Bernadette; Flower, Charles E.  18p.  

Emerald ash borer (A. planipennis) (EAB) has had a devastating effect on ash (Fraxinus) species since its introduction to North America and has resulted in altered ecological processes across the area of infestation. Monitoring is an important tool for understanding and managing the impact of this threat, and the use of common methods by the many groups engaged in monitoring increases the value of monitoring data. We provide detailed methods for monitoring populations of ash trees, emerald ash borers, and lingering ash trees. These comprehensive methods can assist ecologists and managers in understanding the dynamics and effects of EAB infestations. Choice among these methods depends on the scientific and policy questions of interest and the stage of infestation being monitored.


  4.  GTR-NRS-140.  Product costing guide for wood dimension and component manufacturers.  Andersch, Adrienn; Buehlmann, Urs; Palmer, Jeff; Wiedenbeck, Janice K.; Lawser, Steve.  31p.  

The North American hardwood dimension and components industry plays a critical role in the hardwood forest products industry as the industry is a user of high-value hardwood lumber. Customer expectations, global markets, and international competition, however, require hardwood dimension and components manufacturers to continuously improve their ability to manage their products and businesses. Accurate and timely product costing information is critically important for companies in planning the optimal utilization of company resources. While an overestimation of product costs can lead to loss of potential business and market share, underestimation of product costs can result in financial losses to the company. This paper introduces a product costing software package called WoodCite, which is designed specifically for small and medium-sized hardwood dimension and components manufacturers. WoodCite allows companies to determine product costs and create competitive bids based on their information. WoodCite uses a regression model to estimate overhead cost of a product based on historical cost information provided by the user. The application is available for free at


  5.  GTR-P-NRS-142.  Proceedings 19th Central Hardwood Forest Conference.  Groninger, John W.; Holzmueller, Eric J.; Nielsen, Clayton K.; Dey, Daniel C., eds.  388p.  

Proceedings from the 2014 Central Hardwood Forest Conference in Carbondale, IL. The published proceedings include 27 papers and 47 abstracts pertaining to research conducted on biofuels and bioenergy, forest biometrics, forest ecology and physiology, forest economics, forest health including invasive species, forest soils and hydrology, geographic information systems, harvesting and utilization, silviculture, and wildlife management.


  6.  GTR-NRS-144.  Accelerating the development of old-growth characteristics in second-growth northern hardwoods.  Fassnacht, Karin S.; Bronson, Dustin R.; Palik, Brian J.; D'Amato, Anthony W.; Lorimer, Craig; Martin, Karl J.  33p.  

Active management techniques that emulate natural forest disturbance and stand development processes have the potential to enhance species diversity, structural complexity, and spatial heterogeneity in managed forests, helping to meet goals related to biodiversity, ecosystem health, and forest resilience in the face of uncertain future conditions. There are a number of steps to complete before, during, and after deciding to use active management for this purpose. These steps include specifying objectives and identifying initial targets, recognizing and addressing contemporary stressors that may hinder the ability to meet those objectives and targets, conducting a pretreatment evaluation, developing and implementing treatments, and evaluating treatments for success of implementation and for effectiveness after application. In this report we discuss these steps as they may be applied to second-growth northern hardwood forests in the northern Lake States region, using our experience with the ongoing managed old-growth silvicultural study (MOSS) as an example. We provide additional examples from other applicable studies across the region.


  7.  RP-NRS-27.  Internal cavity characteristics of northern long-eared bat (Myotis septentrionalis) maternity day-roosts.  Silvis, Alexander; Thomas, R. Edward; Ford, W. Mark; Britzke, Eric R.; Friedrich, Meryl J.  7p.  

This report discusses characteristics of seven tree cavities used as day-roosts by female northern long-eared bats (Myotis septentrionalis) during the maternity season in a deciduous forest in north-central Kentucky. Understanding the characteristics of cavities selected by bats will help us better understand the ecology of cavity roosting bats and the tree species and condition necessary for providing day-roost habitat. Cavity openings were created by either fungal decay or primary excavators. Length and volume of cavities were positively related to number of entrances. Mean area of entrances was positively related to the proportion of entrances created by primary excavators.


  8.  RMAP-NRS-7.  Spatio-temporal trends of drought by forest type in the conterminous United States, 1960-2013.  Peters, Matthew P.; Iverson, Louis R.; Matthews, Stephen N.  2p.  

Droughts are common in virtually all U.S. forests, but their frequency and intensity vary within forest ecosystems (Hanson and Weltzin 2000). Accounting for the long-term influence of droughts within a region is difficult due to variations in the spatial extent and intensities over a period. Therefore, we created a cumulative drought severity index (CDSI) (Fig. 1) for the United States using weighted monthly frequencies of Palmer Drought Severity Index values reported at climate divisions for the periods 1960 to 1986 and 1987 to 2013 (National Climate Data Center 2014, Palmer 1965). The occurrences of 'severe' conditions (index value of -3.0 to -3.9) receive a weight of 2 and 'extreme' (index value of ≤ -4.0) receive a weight of 3 to reflect the increased magnitude of these events.


Available Online Only

9.  GTR-NC-193.  Proceedings of the Missouri Ozark Forest Ecosystem Project Symposium: an experimental approach to landscape research.  Brookshire, Brian L.; Shifley, Stephen R., eds.  378p.  

Describes the Missouri Ozark Forest Ecosystem Projects (MOFEP) that was initiated in 1991 in southeastern Missouri. Describes in detail the coordinated research studies examining vegetation dynamics, down wood, fungi, birds, small mammals, herpetofauna, invertebrates, and genetics. Soils, geolandforms, ecological landtypes, and climate at the sites are described. Provides extensive baseline data on forest plant and animal communities. Pdf file includes a map, ~ 38x25", of MOFEP study sites.


10.  GTR-NC-208.  Missouri Ozark Forest Ecosystem Project: site history, soils, landforms, woody and herbaceous vegetation, down wood, and inventory methods for the landscape experiment..  Shifley, Stephen R.; Brookshire, Brian L., eds.  314p.  

Describes vegetation and physical site conditions at the initiation (1991-1995) of the Missouri Ozark Forest Ecosystem Project (MOFEP) in the southeastern Missouri Ozarks. Provides detailed information on sampling protocols and summarizes initial conditions of the landscape experiment prior to harvest treatments. Summaries are by plot, by ~800-acre experimental unit, and by ecological landtype. The detailed information serves as a baseline for the century-long MOFEP experiment and for comparison with forest conditions in the regions.


11.  GTR-NC-227.  Proceedings of the second Missouri Ozark Forest Ecosystem Project Symposium: Post-treatment results of the landscape experiment.  Shifley, S.R.; Kabrick, J.M., eds.  1p.  

Presents the short-term effects of even-aged, uneven-aged, and no-harvest management on forest ecosystems included in the Missouri Ozark Forest Project (MOFEP). Individual papers address study design, site history, species diversity, genetic diversity, woody vegetation, ground layer vegetation, stump sprouting, tree cavities, logging disturbance, avian communities, small mammals, herpetofauna, oak herbivores, soil microbes, and synthesis across multiple ecosystem attibrutes.


12.  GTR-NC-240.  Oak Wilt: People and Trees, A Community Approach to Management.  Juzwik, J.; Cook, S.; Haugen, L.; Elwell, J.  p.  

Version 1.3. This self-paced short course on CD-ROM was designed as a learning tool for urban and community foresters, city administrators, tree inspectors, parks and recreation staff, and others involved in oak wilt management.

Click the "View or print this publication" link below to request your Oak Wilt: People and Trees FREE CD-ROM.


13.  GTR-NRS-138.  Social Science Methods Used in the RESTORE Project.  Westphal, Lynne M.; Watkins, Cristy; Gobster, Paul H.; Heneghan, Liam; Ross, Kristen; Ross, Laurel; Tudor, Madeleine; Wali, Alaka; Wise, David H.; Vining, Joanne; Zellner, Moira.  116p.  

The RESTORE (Rethinking Ecological and Social Theories of Restoration Ecology) project is an interdisciplinary, multi-institutional research endeavor funded by the National Science Foundation's Dynamics of Coupled Natural Human Systems program. The goal of the project is to understand the links between organizational type, decision making processes, and biodiversity outcomes in the context of ecological restoration of oak woodlands in the Chicago metropolitan area. This paper describes the procedures used to design, implement, and analyze the social data gathered for the project. Here we provide the useful details about methods that rarely fit in journal articles. We also provide appendices of all research tools. The size and interdisciplinary nature of the project make such documentation necessary. We hope this report can also serve as a guide for future large-scale interdisciplinary projects.


14.  GTR-NRS-141.  PRESTO: online calculation of carbon in harvested wood products.  Hoover, Coeli M.; Beukema, Sarah J.; Robinson, Donald C.E.; Kellock, Katherine M.; Abraham, Diana A.  20p.  

Carbon stored in harvested wood products is recognized under international carbon accounting protocols, and some crediting systems may permit the inclusion of harvested wood products when calculating carbon sequestration. For managers and landowners, however, estimating carbon stored in harvested wood products may be difficult. PRESTO (PRoduct EStimation Tool Online) is a Web-based tool that enables users to easily estimate the carbon stored in harvested wood products and the changes in this quantity over time. The tool may be used in an exploratory mode to examine the impacts of changing the amounts of longer- and shorter-lived products, or with specific harvest data to produce stand-level reports. The methods used are consistent with the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) Good Practice Guidance, as well as U.S. voluntary carbon accounting guidelines.


15.  GTR-NRS-143.  ROMI 4.0: Rough mill simulator 4.0 users manual.  Thomas, R. Edward; Grueneberg, Timo; Buehlmann, Urs.  82p.  

The Rough MIll simulator (ROMI Version 4.0) is a computer software package for personal computers (PCs) that simulates current industrial practices for rip-first, chop-first, and rip and chop-first lumber processing. This guide shows how to set up the software; design, implement, and execute simulations; and examine the results. ROMI 4.0 accepts cutting bills with as many as 600 solid and/or panel part sizes. Plots of boards processed are easily viewed or printed as are detailed summaries of processing data (number of rips and crosscuts) and yields for each grade. ROMI 4.0 optimization algorithms are based on a red oak database containing 3,500 boards of all common National Hardwood Lumber Association grades. Even though ROMI is based on red oak, the digitized board information can be adapted and modified to several other common hardwood species. It is an updated version of ROMI 3: Rough Mill Simulator Version 3.0: User's Guide, General Technical Report NE-328.


16.  RB-NRS-93.  Michigan timber industry—an assessment of timber product output and use, 2008.  Haugen, David E.; Walters, Brian F.; Piva, Ronald J.; Neumann, David.  67p.  

Presents recent Michigan forest industry trends; production and receipts of industrial roundwood; and production of saw logs, veneer logs, pulpwood, and other products in 2008. Logging residue generated from timber harvest operations is reported, as well as wood and bark residue generated at primary wood-using mills and disposition of mill residues.


17.  RB-NRS-94.  Pulpwood production in the Northern Region, 2008.  Piva, Ronald J.  95p.  

Discusses 2008 production and receipts of pulpwood in the Northern Region. Breaks down production from four subregions—Central States, Lake States, Mid-Atlantic States, and New England States—by species group for each state and compares production with that of previous years. Includes production for 2008 for the Plains States by species group and product form.


Resource Update

The following publications provide an overview of forest resource attributes for the respective State based on an annual inventory conducted by the Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) program at the Northern Research Station of the U.S. Forest Service. These are available only online.

RU-FS-28.  Forests of New Jersey, 2013.  Crocker, Susan J.  4p.  

RU-FS-29.  Forests of New Hampshire, 2013.  Morin, Randall S.; Pugh, Scott A.  4p.  

RU-FS-30.  Forests of Vermont, 2013.  Morin, Randall S.; Pugh, Scott A.  4p.  

RU-FS-33.  Forests of North Dakota, 2014.  Haugen, D.E.; Pugh, S.A.  4p.  

RU-FS-34.  Forests of Iowa, 2014.  Nelson, Mark D.; Brewer, Matt; Butler, Brett J.; Pugh, Scott A.  4p.  

RU-FS-35.  Forests of Michigan, 2014.  Pugh, Scott A.  4p.  

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