New Station Publications

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Northern Research Station

  1.  GTR-NRS-97.  Wood decay in living and dead trees: A pictorial overview.  Shortle, Walter C.; Dudzik, Kenneth R.  26p.  

Pioneering research by Alex L. Shigo and his associates has produced a series of pictorial guidelines to provide a better understanding of how trees respond to wounding and subsequent microbial infections that lead to wood decay. The purpose of this paper is to visually summarize through the use of 96 color photographs and illustrations, the varied patterns of wood discoloration and decay observed in the dissection of thousands of trees. This information has served as a conceptual framework for understanding the biochemical processes that limit the spread of wood-destroying infections initiated by wounding during the maturation of all trees. This understanding has helped those who work with forests, trees, and wood to resolve practical problems and improve the health and productivity of trees and forests.

 

  2.  GTR-NRS-98.  Silvicultural guide for northern white-cedar (eastern white cedar).  Boulfroy, Emmanuelle; Forget, Eric; Hofmeyer, Philip V.; Kenefic, Laura S.; Larouche, Catherine; Lessard, Guy; Lussier, Jean-Martin; Pinto, Fred; Ruel, Jean-Claude; Weiskittel, Aaron.  74p.  

Northern white-cedar (eastern white cedar; Thuja occidentalis L.) is an important tree species in the northeastern United States and adjacent Canada, occurring both in pure stands and as a minor species in mixed stands of hardwoods or other softwoods. Yet practitioners have little and often contradictory information about cedar ecology and silviculture. In response to this information need, a group of university and government researchers in the United States and Canada embarked on more than a decade of collaborative research; this guide is a compilation of the knowledge generated by that effort. It includes an overview of the commodity and non-commodity values of cedar, silvics of cedar and companion species, descriptions of the cedar resource in the northeastern United States, Quebec, and Ontario, and silvicultural guidelines based on previously published literature and new studies of cedar regeneration, growth, mortality, site relationships, and responses to treatment. With generally slow growth and little to no ingrowth on most inventory plots in the region, silvicultural prescriptions that explicitly address cedar are warranted. Recommendations include retaining and releasing cedar in managed stands, as well as establishing and protecting advance cedar regeneration and residual trees during harvesting. Partial cutting (e.g., the selection or irregular shelterwood method) is suggested for regenerating stands with a component of cedar, though browsing by white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus Zimmermann) may influence treatment outcomes and must be considered. Once established, cedar responds well to release and will benefit from competition control and thinning. In mixed-species stands, within-stand flexibility of treatment is critical for maintaining cedar when other, more dominant species are driving silvicultural prescriptions at the stand level; a "micro-stand" approach in which pockets of cedar are identified and managed is suggested.

 

  3.  GTR-NRS-99.  Changing climate, changing forests: The impacts of climate change on forests of the northeastern United States and eastern Canada.  Rustad, Lindsey; Campbell, John; Dukes, Jeffrey S.; Huntington, Thomas; Fallon Lambert, Kathy; Mohan, Jacqueline; Rodenhouse, Nicholas.  48p.  

Decades of study on climatic change and its direct and indirect effects on forest ecosystems provide important insights for forest science, management, and policy. A synthesis of recent research from the northeastern United States and eastern Canada shows that the climate of the region has become warmer and wetter over the past 100 years and that there are more extreme precipitation events. Greater change is projected in the future. The amount of projected future change depends on the emissions scenarios used. Tree species composition of northeast forests has shifted slowly in response to climate for thousands of years. However, current human-accelerated climate change is much more rapid and it is unclear how forests will respond to large changes in suitable habitat. Projections indicate significant declines in suitable habitat for spruce-fir forests and expansion of suitable habitat for oak-dominated forests. Productivity gains that might result from extended growing seasons and carbon dioxide and nitrogen fertilization may be offset by productivity losses associated with the disruption of species assemblages and concurrent stresses associated with potential increases in atmospheric deposition of pollutants, forest fragmentation, and nuisance species. Investigations of links to water and nutrient cycling suggest that changes in evapotranspiration, soil respiration, and mineralization rates could result in significant alterations of key ecosystem processes. Climate change affects the distribution and abundance of many wildlife species in the region through changes in habitat, food availability, thermal tolerances, species interactions such as competition, and susceptibility to parasites and disease. Birds are the most studied northeastern taxa. Twenty-seven of the 38 bird species for which we have adequate long-term records have expanded their ranges predominantly in a northward direction. There is some evidence to suggest that novel species, including pests and pathogens, may be more adept at adjusting to changing climatic conditions, enhancing their competitive ability relative to native species. With the accumulating evidence of climate change and its potential effects, forest stewardship efforts would benefit from integrating climate mitigation and adaptation options in conservation and management plans.

 

  4.  GTR-NRS-100.  Outdoor Recreation in the Northern United States.  Cordell, H. Ken; Betz, Carter J.; Mou, Shela H.; Gormanson, Dale D.  74p.  

In the last two decades, the North's population grew at a considerably slower rate than the Nation as a whole. Nevertheless, this region's population is large and in all likelihood will continue to grow. This means greater development of land and water resources at the same time that there is growth in demand for outdoor recreation. This report looks at recent population trends and forecasts within the context of other U.S. regions, demographic composition of population, recreation participation by residents age 16 and older, trends in activities and time spent outdoors by its youth, and the changes occurring in recreation resources, both public and private. The region referenced here includes the area within the corner States of Maine, Minnesota, Missouri, and Maryland. Much of the research reported here ties to data, analyses, and findings developed for the U.S. Department of Agriculture Forest Service 2010 Renewable Resources Planning Act (RPA) Assessment (Cordell 2012) and how they affect the sustainability of northern forests.

 

  5.  RB-NRS-64.  Maryland timber industry: an assessment of timber product output and use, 2008.  Walters, Brian F.; Rider, Daniel R.; Piva, Ronald J.  52p.  

Presents recent Maryland forest industry trends; production and receipts of industrial roundwood; and production of saw logs, veneer logs, pulpwood, and other products in 2008. Logging residue generated from timber harvest operations is reported, as well as wood and bark residue generated at primary wood-using mills and disposition of mill residues.

 

  6.  RB-NRS-65.  New York's Forests 2007.  Widmann, Richard H.; Crawford, Sloane; Barnett, Charles; Butler, Brett J.; Domke, Grant M.; Griffith, Douglas M.; Hatfield, Mark A.; Kurtz, Cassandra M.; Lister, Tonya W.; Morin, Randall S.; Moser, W. Keith; Perry, Charles H.; Riemann, Rachel; Woodall, Christopher W.  64p.  

This report summarizes the first full annual inventory of New York's forests, conducted in 2002-2007 by the U.S. Forest Service, Northern Research Station. New York's forests cover 19.0 million acres; 15.9 million acres are classified as timberland and 3.1 million acres as reserved and other forest land. Forest land is dominated by the maple/beech/birch forest type that occupies more than half of the forest land. The volume of growing stock on timberland has been rising and currently totals 29.2 billion cubic feet, enough to produce saw logs equivalent to 87.1 billion board feet. On timberland, average annual growth of growing stock outpaced removals by a ratio of 2.0:1. The net change in growing-stock volume averaged 1.2 percent per year in 1993-2007. The report includes additional information on forest attributes, land use, forest fragmentation, forest ownership, forest health indicators, timber products, and statistics and quality assurance of data collection. Detailed information on forest inventory methods and data quality estimates is included in a DVD at the back of this report. Tables of population estimates and a glossary are also included.

 

  7.  RB-NRS-66.  Michigan's Forests 2009.  Pugh, Scott A.; Pedersen, Lawrence D.; Heym, Douglas C.; Piva, Ronald J.; Woodall, Christopher W.; Barnett, Charles J.; Kurtz, Cassandra M.; Moser, W. Keith.  68p.  

The seventh inventory of Michigan's forests, completed in 2009, describes more than 19.9 million acres of forest land. The data in this report are based on visits to 7,516 forested plots from 2005 to 2009. Timberland accounts for 97 percent of this forest land, and 62 percent is privately owned. The sugar maple/beech/yellow birch forest type accounts for 18 percent of the State's forest land, followed by aspen (13 percent) and white oak/red oak/hickory (7 percent). Balsam fir, red maple, and sugar maple are the three most common species by number of trees. Growing-stock volume on timberland has continued to increase totaling about 28.7 billion cubic feet (ft3). The associated net growth, harvest removals, and mortality totaled 698, 311, and 272 million ft3/year, respectively. In addition to information on forest attributes, this report includes data on forest health, biomass, land-use change, and timber-product outputs. Detailed information on forest inventory methods, data quality estimates, and important resource statistics can be found in Statistics, Methods, and Quality Assurance on the DVD in the back of this publication.

 

  8.  RB-NRS-67.  Wisconsin's Forests 2009.  Perry, Charles H.; Everson, Vern A.; Butler, Brett J.; Crocker, Susan J.; Dahir, Sally E.; Diss-Torrance, Andrea L.; Domke, Grant M; Gormanson, Dale D.; Herrick, Sarah K.; Hubbard, Steven S.; Mace, Terry R.; Miles, Patrick D.; Nelson, Mark D.; Rodeout, Richard B.; Saunders, Luke T.; Stueve, Kirk M.; Wilson, Barry T.; Woodall, Christopher W.  62p.  

The second full annual inventory of Wisconsin's forests reports more than 16.7 million acres of forest land with an average volume of more than 1,400 cubic feet per acre. Forest land is dominated by the oak/hickory forest-type group, which occupies slightly more than one quarter of the total forest land area; the maple/beech/birch forest-type group occupies an additional 23 percent. Forty-two percent of forest land consists of large diameter stands, 23 percent contains medium diameter stands, and 8 percent contains small diameter stands. The volume of growing stock on timberland has been rising since the 1980s and currently totals more than 21.1 billion cubic feet. The average annual net growth of growing stock on forest land from 2005 to 2009 is approximately 572 million cubic feet per year. This report includes additional information on forest attributes, land use change, carbon, timber products, forest health, and statistics and quality assurance of data collection.

 

  9.  RN-NRS-159.  Etoile Firewise: youth working with communities to adapt to wildfire.  Monroe, Martha; Oxarart, Annie.  14p.  

Around the world, youth are recognized as playing an important role in reducing the risk of disasters and promoting community resilience. Youth are participating in disaster education programs and carrying home what they learn; their families, in turn, are disseminating knowledge into the community. In addition to making a difference today, youth disaster education programs train the adults of tomorrow to be more prepared citizens. As social scientists and education researchers working in wildfire risk mitigation, we asked: how can wildfire education programs for youth help develop and support fire-adapted human communities? To begin to answer this question, we studied seven wildfire education programs for youth across the U.S. Programs were based in schools, public agencies, and nongovernmental organizations (NGOs). In a series of interviews, we sought information that would enable us to describe and analyze (1) the program's characteristics and the local resources to support it, (2) ways in which the program increased knowledge and awareness of wildfire, promoted more realistic risk perceptions, and improved wildfire preparedness for youth and their families, and (3) ways in which the program contributed to the local community becoming more adapted to fire. We found that the extent to which the programs were integrated into local wildfire planning and management efforts varied, as did their effectiveness in reaching community members and homeowners. In this report we present findings from one case study—Etoile Firewise.

 

  10.  RN-NRS-160.  Wildfire in the Foothills: youth working with communities to adapt to wildfire.  Ballard, Heidi L.; Evans, Emily R.  14p.  

Around the world, youth are recognized as playing an important role in reducing the risk of disasters and promoting community resilience. Youth are participating in disaster education programs and carrying home what they learn; their families, in turn, are disseminating knowledge into the community. In addition to making a difference today, youth disaster education programs train the adults of tomorrow to be more prepared citizens. As social scientists and education researchers working in wildfire risk mitigation, we asked: how can wildfire education programs for youth help develop and support fire-adapted human communities? To begin to answer this question, we studied seven wildfire education programs for youth across the U.S. Programs were based in schools, public agencies, and nongovernmental organizations (NGOs). In a series of interviews, we sought information that would enable us to describe and analyze (1) the program's characteristics and the local resources to support it, (2) ways in which the program increased knowledge and awareness of wildfire, promoted more realistic risk perceptions, and improved wildfire preparedness for youth and their families, and (3) ways in which the program contributed to the local community becoming more adapted to fire. We found that the extent to which the programs were integrated into local wildfire planning and management efforts varied, as did their effectiveness in reaching community members and homeowners. In this report we present findings from one case study—the Wildfire in the Foothills program in Butte County, California.

 

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