New Station Publications

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Northern Research Station

  2.  GTR-NRS-95.  Climate change science applications and needs in forest ecosystem management: a workshop organized as part of the northern Wisconsin Climate Change Response Framework Project.  Brandt, Leslie; Swanston, Chris; Parker, Linda; Janowiak, Maria; Birdsey, Richard; Iverson, Louis; Mladenoff, David; Butler, Patricia.  53p.  

Climate change is leading to direct and indirect impacts on forest tree species and ecosystems in northern Wisconsin. Land managers will need to prepare for and respond to these impacts, so we designed a workshop to identify forest management approaches that can enhance the ability of ecosystems in northern Wisconsin to cope with climate change and address how National Forests and other lands could be used to test these approaches. The workshop had three major themes: (1) adaptation of forest management to current and expected climate change, (2) forest management to support greenhouse gas mitigation, and (3) monitoring of climate change impacts and the effectiveness of mitigation and adaptation strategies. A group of nearly 60 experts in the fields of forest science, policy, and forest resource management identifi ed place-based management approaches and new research directions that addressed these major themes. One concept that emerged was the need to adapt not only ecological systems but social systems as well, and research to adapt social systems was identifi ed as a key knowledge gap. Participants were cautious about the potential for northern Wisconsin lands to mitigate greenhouse gas emissions and enhance carbon sequestration through forest management. The experts identified the need for more research to quantify that potential, especially for non-forested lands and greenhouse gases other than carbon dioxide. Participants also agreed that mitigation strategies will not be effective in the long term unless they are carried out in conjunction with adaptation strategies. According to participants, current monitoring efforts in northern Wisconsin are insufficient to detect climate change impacts at spatial scales relevant to land management and are not as well-integrated with each other as they could be. However, participants identified several regional and national programs that could serve as models for integration. Outcomes from this workshop emphasized the importance of a place-based response to climate change. Forest managers in northern Wisconsin will need to establish and articulate clear goals for adaptation, mitigation, and monitoring, as well as ensure these goals are integrated with one another, in order to be effective at responding to climate change.

 

  3.  GTR-NRS-96.  Manual herbicide application methods for managing vegetation in Appalachian hardwood forests.  Kochenderfer, Jeffrey D.; Kochenderfer, James N.; Miller, Gary W.  59p.  

Four manual herbicide application methods are described for use in Appalachian hardwood forests. Stem injection, basal spray, cut-stump, and foliar spray techniques can be used to control interfering vegetation and promote the development of desirable reproduction and valuable crop trees in hardwood forests. Guidelines are presented to help the user select the appropriate technique and herbicide for various forest management goals. Instructions for preparing appropriate herbicide concentrations are also provided. Photos illustrate the various application methods and the tools needed to apply herbicides safely and effectively, depending on the target plants to be controlled.

 

  4.  RB-NRS-62.  Delaware's Forests 2008.  Lister, Tonya W.; Gladders, Glenn; Barnett, Charles J.; Brand, Gary J.; Butler, Brett J.; Crocker, Susan J.; Domke, Grant M.; Griffith, Douglas M.; Hatfield, Mark A.; Kurtz, Cassandra M.; Lister, Andrew J.; Morin, Randall S.; Moser, W. Keith; Nelson, Mark D.; Perry, Charles H.; Piva, Ronald J.; Riemann, Rachel; Woodall, Christopher W.  56p.  

The fifth full inventory of Delaware's forests reports an 8 percent decrease in the area of forest land to 352,000 acres, which cover 28 percent of the State's land area and has a volume of approximately 2,352 cubic feet per acre. Twenty-one percent of the growing-stock volume is red maple, followed by sweetgum (13 percent), and loblolly pine (12 percent). All species of oaks combined account for 24 percent of the volume. Red maple is the most abundant species in terms of number of trees and the population had been rising through the 1980s and 1990s, but current data show little change since 1999. Oak species and loblolly pine decreased in numbers of trees and volumes. Seventy-three percent of forest land consists of large-diameter trees and 10 percent is in the small-diameter stand-size classes. Average annual growth as a percentage of total growing-stock volume increased from 2.3 to 3.9 percent between 1999 and 2008, while removals and mortality changed little. Additional information on forest attributes, land-use change, carbon, timber products, and forest health is presented in this report. A DVD included in the report provides information on sampling techniques, estimation procedures, a glossary, tables of population estimates, raw data, and a data summarization and reporting tool.

 

  5.  RB-NRS-63.  Indiana timber industry: an assessment of timber product output and use, 2008.  Walters, Brian F.; Settle, Jeff; Piva, Ronald J.  72p.  

Presents recent Indiana forest industry trends; production and receipts of industrial roundwood; and production of saw logs, veneer logs, pulpwood, and other products in 2008. Logging residue generated from timber harvest operations is reported, as well as wood and bark residue generated at primary wood-using mills and disposition of mill residues.

 

  6.  RN-NRS-138.  West Virginia Firewise in the Classroom: youth working with communities to adapt to wildfire.  Jakes, Pamela J.  13p.  

Around the world, youth are recognized as playing an important role in reducing the risk of disasters and promoting community resilience. Youth are participating in disaster education programs and carrying home what they learn; their families, in turn, are disseminating knowledge into the community. In addition to making a difference today, youth disaster education programs train the adults of tomorrow to be more prepared citizens. As social scientists and education researchers working in wildfire risk mitigation, we asked in what ways can wildfire education programs for youth help develop and support fire-adapted human communities? To begin to answer this question, we studied seven wildfire education programs for youth across the U.S. Programs were based in schools, public agencies, and nongovernmental organizations (NGOs). In a series of interviews, we sought information that would enable us to describe and analyze (1) the program's characteristics and the local resources to support it, (2) ways in which the program increased knowledge and awareness of wildfire, promoted more realistic risk perceptions, and improved wildfire preparedness for youth and their families, and (3) ways in which the program contributed to the local community becoming more adapted to fire. We found that the extent to which the programs were integrated into local wildfire planning and management efforts varied, as did their effectiveness in reaching community members and homeowners. In this report we present findings from one case study—the West Virginia Firewise in the Classroom program (WV Firewise in the Classroom).

 

  8.  RN-NRS-144.  Historical (1899) age and structural characteristics of an old-growth northern hardwood stand in New York State.  Leak, William B.; Yamasaki, Mariko.  11p.  

Based on records taken during a harvest operation in 1899 on more than 400 trees in a northern hardwood stand in upper New York State, age and structural characteristics, including growth patterns, were developed and summarized. Age and size characteristics indicate that this was an exemplary old-growth stand similar in character to current old-growth examples in the northeastern United States. The purpose of this paper is to add to the available information on old-growth stand characteristics in the Northeast.

 

  9.  RP-NRS-20.  80 Years of thinning research on northern hardwoods in the Bartlett Experimental Forest, New Hampshire.  Leak, William B.; Yamasaki, Mariko.  8p.  

Commercial and noncommercial thinning studies in northern hardwoods on the Bartlett Experimental Forest, New Hampshire, began in 1932. One of the studies, still maintained today, consisted of several precommercial treatments at age 25 (1959) and a commercial treatment in 2003. Although economic returns from precommercial work appear somewhat marginal and require additional research, commercial thinning in northern hardwoods is clearly advisable--almost necessary because evenaged northern hardwoods offer a unique thinning opportunity: a component of shade-intolerant aspen and paper birch maturing in 50 to 70 years coupled with a component of long-lived species that will mature at age 100 to 120 years.

 

  10.  RP-NRS-21.  A comparison of two stem injection treatments applied to American beech in central West Virginia.  Kochenderfer, Jeffrey D.; Miller, Gary W.; Kochenderfer, James N.  10p.  

Efficacies for two herbicide stem injection treatments on American beech (Fagus grandifolia Ehrh.) and impacts to nontarget residual trees were evaluated in central West Virginia. The treatments consisted of hack-and-squirt injection of all beech stems ≥1.0 in. to 9.9 in. diameter at breast height (d.b.h.) with either imazapyr as ArsenalTM (28.7 percent) or glyphosate as Razor ProTM (41 percent) in water carriers. The treatments were applied in September 2008 and evaluated 12 months after treatment. Complete control of injected stems was achieved with both treatments; however, treatment efficacy on untreated beech stems >1.0 ft tall to 0.9 in. d.b.h. was higher on the Arsenal treatments. No damage occurred to any desirable overstory species such as black cherry (Prunus serotina Ehrh.) or red maple (Acer rubrum L.) trees that were located on all the treatment plots. Land managers can use the hack-and-squirt injection treatments described in this study to control both injected trees and a large proportion of smaller beech root sprouts associated with them.

 

  11.  RMAP-NRS-3.  Forest land cover change (1975-2000) in the Greater Border Lakes region.  Wolter, Peter T.; Sturtevant, Brian R.; Miranda, Brian R.; Lietz, Sue M.; Townsend, Phillip A.; Pastor, John.  17p.  

This document and accompanying maps describe land cover classifications and change detection for a 13.8 million ha landscape straddling the border between Minnesota, and Ontario, Canada (greater Border Lakes Region). Land cover classifications focus on discerning Anderson Level II forest and nonforest cover to track spatiotemporal changes in forest cover. Multi-temporal Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM), Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+), and Multi-Spectral Scanner (MSS) data from 1972 to 2000 were used to classify forest cover types and disturbances at 5-year intervals. A composite dataset depicting the period of forest disturbance was produced using the 1975-2000 sequence of land cover data. These land cover change data were produced to facilitate analysis of forest disturbance patterns, to support landscape simulation modeling, and to support cross-ownership land management within the region. A double-sided fold-out map shows A) forest land cover change across differently managed forests, and B) classified period of forest canopy disturbance for the entire study area. Digital versions of the map are available online, as are the datasets and code used to produce them.

 

Available Online Only

1.  GTR-NRS-93.  Forest and grassland carbon in North America: A short course for land managers.  Swanston, Chris; Furniss, Michael J.; Schmitt, Kristen; Guntle, Jeffrey; Janowiak, Maria; Hines, Sarah.  p.  

This multimedia short-course presents a range of information on the science, management and policy of forest and grassland carbon. Forests and grasslands worldwide play a critical role in storing carbon and sequestering greenhouse gases from the atmosphere. The U.S. Forest Service, which manages 193 million acres of forests and grasslands, emphasizes the need for management to consider carbon stewardship in conjunction with other sustainable land management goals. This course aims to provide a broad background for public and private land managers who are interested in how ecosystems store and release carbon, how management can affect carbon storage and release, and how carbon can be considered in the context of other management objectives. Experts in the subject matter prepared each presentation and each talk was reviewed by a group of scientists and managers to help improve the clarity and content of the final recording. The DVD includes fifteen presentations, accompanied by references and links, and a set of quizzes on the material. Course material can also be accessed online at http://www.fs.fed.us/ccrc/carboncourse/

 

7.  RN-NRS-139.  Minnesota Firewise in the Classroom: youth working with communities to adapt to wildfire.  Jakes, Pamela J.  14p.  

Around the world, youth are recognized as playing an important role in reducing the risk of disasters and promoting community resilience. Youth are participating in disaster education programs and carrying home what they learn; their families, in turn, are disseminating knowledge into the community. In addition to making a difference today, youth disaster education programs train the adults of tomorrow to be more prepared citizens. As social scientists and education researchers working in wildfire risk mitigation, we asked in what ways can wildfire education programs for youth help develop and support fire-adapted human communities? To begin to answer this question, we studied seven wildfire education programs for youth across the U.S. Programs were based in schools, public agencies, and nongovernmental organizations (NGOs). In a series of interviews, we sought information that would enable us to describe and analyze (1) the program's characteristics and the local resources to support it, (2) ways in which the program increased knowledge and awareness of wildfire, promoted more realistic risk perceptions, and improved wildfire preparedness for youth and their families, and (3) ways in which the program contributed to the local community becoming more adapted to fire. We found that the extent to which the programs were integrated into local wildfire planning and management efforts varied, as did their effectiveness in reaching community members and homeowners. In this report we present findings from one case study—the Minnesota Firewise in the Classroom Community Assessment Process.

 

12.  GTR-P-NRS-94.  Proceedings of the 2010 Northeastern Recreation Research Symposium.  Fisher, Cherie LeBlanc; Watts, Clifton E., Jr., eds.  261p.  

Contains articles presented at the 2010 Northeastern Recreation Research Symposium. Contents cover tourism marketing, fish and wildlife, place meaning, leisure and demographics, nature-based tourism, methods, leisure motives, outdoor recreation management, outdoor recreation among specific populations, leisure constraints, environmental attitudes and values, leisure cognition, environmental education, wildland-urban interface issues, and attribute evaluation and preference.

 

13.  RN-NRS-154.  Mapping young forest in Wisconsin.  Nelson, Mark; Stueve, Kirk; Perry, Charles; Gormanson, Dale; Huang, Chengquan; Healey, Sean.  5p.  

Population declines of early successional forest-associated wildlife species have been linked to declines in habitat abundance. Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) data can be used to estimate composition and change in 'young' forest, but such information typically lacks spatial specificity for determining landscape patterns that also affect habitat suitability. We developed a satellite remote sensing approach for making spatially explicit maps of young forest, using Landsat time series stacks and a vegetation change tracker (VCT) algorithm to identify forest disturbances occurring since 1985, and corresponding estimates of stand age based on year of disturbance. Wisconsin statewide estimates of young forest (1-20 years), from VCT and FIA, respectively, were 923,000 and 836,000 ha. Compared to FIA-based estimates, VCT-based estimates were statistically significantly higher for forest age classes of 1-5, 6-10, and 11-15 years, and significantly lower for the 16-20 year age class. Ongoing studies are examining causes and potential corrections for discrepancies between VCT- and FIA-based estimates of young forest in Wisconsin.

 

14.  RN-NRS-158.  Bulletin of hardwood market statistics: 2011.  Jones, Melody.  23p.  

Provides current and historical information on primary and secondary hardwood products, production, prices, international trade, and employment.

 

Resource Update

The following publications provide an overview of forest resource attributes for the respective State based on an annual inventory conducted by the Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) program at the Northern Research Station of the U.S. Forest Service. These are available only online.


RN-NRS-140.  New Hampshire's forest resources, 2011.  Morin, R.S.; Woodall, C.W.  4p.  

RN-NRS-141.  Vermont's forest resources, 2011.  Morin, R.S.; Woodall, C.W.  4p.  

RN-NRS-142.  North Dakota's forest resources, 2011.  Haugen, D.E.; Harsel, R.A.  4p.  

RN-NRS-143.  Maine's forest resources, 2011.  McCaskill, G.L.; McWilliams, W.H.  4p.  

RN-NRS-145.  Illinois' forest resources, 2011.  Crocker, S.J.  4p.  

RN-NRS-146.  Ohio's forest resources, 2011.  Widmann, R.H.  4p.  

RN-NRS-147.  New York's forest resources, 2011.  Widmann, R.H.  4p.  

RN-NRS-148.  West Virginia's forest resources, 2011.  Widmann, R.H.  4p.  

RN-NRS-149.  Connecticut's forest resources, 2011.  Butler, Brett J.; Morin, Randall S.; Nelson, Mark D.  4p.  

RN-NRS-150.  Massachusetts' forest resources, 2011.  Butler, Brett J.; Morin, Randall S.; Nelson, Mark D.  4p.  

RN-NRS-151.  Rhode Island's forest resources, 2011.  Butler, Brett J.; Morin, Randall S.; Nelson, Mark D.  4p.  

RN-NRS-152.  Nebraska's forest resources, 2011.  Meneguzzo, D.M.; Walters, B.  4p.  

RN-NRS-153.  Maryland's forest resources, 2011.  Lister, Tonya; Perdue, J.  4p.  

RN-NRS-155.  Delaware's forest resources, 2011.  Lister, T.W.; Gladders, G.  4p.  

RN-NRS-156.  New Jersey's forest resources, 2011.  Crocker, S.J.  4p.  

RN-NRS-157.  Pennsylvania's forest resources, 2011.  McCaskill, G.L.; McWilliams, W.H.; Barnett, C.J.  4p.  

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