New Station Publications

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Northern Research Station

  1.  GTR-NRS-87.  Forest adaptation resources: Climate change tools and approaches for land managers.  Swanston, Chris; Janowiak, Maria, eds.  121p.  

The forests of northern Wisconsin, a defining feature of the region's landscape, are expected to undergo numerous changes in response to the changing climate. This document provides a collection of resources designed to help forest managers incorporate climate change considerations into management and devise adaptation tactics. It was developed in northern Wisconsin as part of the Northwoods Climate Change Response Framework project and contains information from assessments, partnership efforts, workshops, and collaborative work between scientists and managers. The four interrelated chapters include: (1) a description of the overarching Climate Change Response Framework, a landscape-scale conservation approach also being expanded to other landscapes; (2) a "menu" of adaptation strategies and approaches that are directly relevant to forests in northern Wisconsin; (3) a workbook process to help incorporate climate change considerations into forest management planning and to assist land managers in developing groundlevel climate adaptation tactics for forest ecosystems; and (4) two illustrations that provide examples of how these resources can be used in real-world situations. The ideas, tools, and resources presented in the different chapters are intended to inform and support the existing decisionmaking processes of multiple organizations with diverse management goals.

The second edition is now available. It was developed as part of the Climate Change Response Framework and reflects the expertise, creativity, and feedback of dozens of direct contributors and hundreds of users of the first edition over the last several years (see http://dx.doi.org/10.2737/NRS-GTR-87-2).

 

  2.  GTR-NRS-90ES.  Executive Summary: Forests of the Northern United States.  Shifley, Stephen R.; Aguilar, Francisco X.; Song, Nianfu; Stewart, Susan I.; Nowak, David J.; Gormanson, Dale D.; Moser, W. Keith; Wormstead, Sherri; Greenfield, Eric J.  40p.  

This executive summary provides an overview of the 200-page report, Forests of the Northern United States, which covers in detail current forest conditions, recent trends, issues, threats and opportunities in the forests in the 20 Northern States. It provides a context for subsequent Northern Forest Futures Project analyses that will forecast alternative future scenarios and their potential impacts on forests and people in the North. Facts and figures cited in this executive summary come from numerous publications and online databases; specific sources and many additional details are included in the full report.

 

  2.  GTR-NRS-90.  Forests of the Northern United States.  Shifley, Stephen R.; Aguilar, Francisco X.; Song, Nianfu; Stewart, Susan I.; Nowak, David J.; Gormanson, Dale D.; Moser, W. Keith; Wormstead, Sherri; Greenfield, Eric J.  202p.  

Bounded by Maine, Maryland, Missouri, and Minnesota, the 20 Northern States have a larger population and a higher proportion of forest cover than other comparably sized U.S. regions. Forest-associated issues across the North include insect and disease pests, invasive species, forest management capacity, management standards, biodiversity, forest fragmentation, water quality, water quantity, output of forest products, recreation, and environmental literacy - all related to sustainability at local, State, and regional scales. This report uses the Montréal Process to summarize current conditions and recent trends in seven categories - biodiversity; forest productive capacity; forest ecosystem health; soil and water resources; forest carbon and biomass; long-term socioeconomic benefits; and the legal, institutional, and economic framework for sustainable management - and adds an eighth category to reflect the importance of urban and community forests to the Northern States. Since 1953, population in the North increased by 40 percent, forest area by 28 percent, and timber volume by 140 percent. The increases in forest area appear to be leveling off as urban expansion subsumes about 1.5 million acres of forest land per decade. Seventy-four percent of forests are privately owned, yet one acre in six is in some category of protected status. Forests are aging; and although total mortality for the region has been relatively stable in recent years, emerald ash borer and other invasive species are now poised to kill billions of trees. Forests supply 48 percent of the region's water needs and employ 441,000 in its forest products sector. Participation in a wide range of nature-based recreation activities is increasing at 10 to 20 percent per decade. These and many other characteristics of northern forests summarized in this report become interrelated on the North's forest landscapes, sometimes in complex ways. The information in this report provides a basis for ongoing, detailed discussions about these large-scale interactions and how they affect the sustainability of northern forests.

 

  3.  GTR-NRS-91.  Harvesting systems for the northern forest hardwoods.  LeDoux, Chris B.  65p.  

This monograph is a summary of research results and environmental compliance measures for timber harvesting operations. Data are presented from the Northern Research Station's forest inventory and analysis of 20 states in the northern forest hardwoods. Harvesting systems available in the region today are summarized. Equations for estimating harvesting costs are documented. Safety considerations are compiled along with images of safety equipment and clothing engineered to protect the head, ears, eyes, face, hands, and legs. Mandatory and voluntary best management practices (BMPs) are discussed for streamside management zones (SMZs), patch/structural retention, invasive plant mitigation, and soil protection. Profitability and cost control are addressed. The importance of keeping machines working, exploiting machines' payload capacity, and matching machines to the size of wood being harvested is illustrated. The information offered in this text should be valuable to the harvesting industry and serve as a text for a course in timber harvesting.

 

  4.  GTR-P-NRS-92.  Proceedings, 22nd U.S. Department of Agriculture interagency research forum on invasive species 2011.  McManus, Katherine A; Gottschalk, Kurt W., eds.  105p.  

Contains abstracts and papers of 62 oral and poster presentations on invasive species biology, molecular biology, ecology, impacts, and management presented at the annual U.S. Department of Agriculture Interagency Research Forum on Invasive Species.

 

  5.  RB-NRS-58.  Maryland's Forests 2008.  Lister, T.W.; Perdue, J.L; Barnett, C.J.; Butler, B.J.; Crocker, S.J.; Domke, G.M.; Griffith, D.; Hatfield, M.A.; Kurtz, C.M.; Lister, A.J.; Morin, R.S.; Moser, W.K.; Nelson, M.D.; Perry, C.H.; Piva, R.J.; Riemann, R.; Widmann, R.; Woodall, C.W.  60p.  

The first full annual inventory of Maryland's forests reports approximately 2.5 million acres of forest land, which covers 40 percent of the State's land area and with a total volume of more than 2,100 cubic feet per acre. Nineteen percent of the growing-stock volume is yellow-poplar, followed by red maple (13 percent) and loblolly pine (10 percent). All species of oaks combined account for 26 percent of the total growing-stock volume. Red maple is the most abundant species in terms of number of trees. There were about 5.9 billion cubic feet of growing-stock volume in 2008, and the average annual growth rate of volume has been about 2 percent. Additional information on forest attributes, land-use change, carbon, timber products, and forest health is presented in this report. A DVD included in the report provides information on sampling techniques, estimation procedures, tables of population estimates, raw data, a data summarization tool, and a glossary.

 

  6.  RB-NRS-59.  New Jersey's forests, 2008.  Crocker, Susan J.; Nelson, Mark D.; Barnett, Charles J.; Brand, Gary J.; Butler, Brett J.; Domke, Grant M.; Hansen, Mark H.; Hatfield, Mark A.; Lister, Tonya W.; Meneguzzo, Dacia M.; Perry, Charles H.; Piva, Ronald J.; Wilson, Barry T.; Woodall, Christopher W.; Zipse, Bill.  52p.  

The first full annual inventory of New Jersey's forests reports more than 2.0 million acres of forest land and 83 tree species. Forest land is dominated by oak-hickory forest types in the north and pitch pine forest types in the south. The volume of growing stock on timberland has been rising since 1956 and currently totals 3.4 billion cubic feet. The average annual net growth of growing stock from 1999 to 2008 averages 94.6 million cubic feet per year. This report includes additional information on forest attributes, land use change, carbon, timber products, and forest health. The included DVD provides information on error estimates, quality assurance of data collection, tables, and raw data.

 

  7.  RB-NRS-61.  West Virginia's Forests 2008.  Widmann, Richard H.; Cook, Gregory W.; Barnett, Charles J.; Butler, Brett J.; Griffith, Douglas M.; Hatfield, Mark A.; Kurtz, Cassandra M.; Morin, Randall S.; Moser, W. Keith; Perry, Charles H.; Piva, Ronald J.; Riemann, Rachel; Woodall, Christopher W.  64p.  

The first full annual inventory of West Virginia's forests reports 12.0 million acres of forest land or 78 percent of the State's land area. The area of forest land has changed little since 2000. Of this land, 7.2 million acres (60 percent) are held by family forest owners. The current growing-stock inventory is 25 billion cubic feet--12 percent more than in 2000--and averages 2,136 cubic feet per acre. Yellow-poplar continues to lead in volume followed by white and chestnut oaks. Since 2000, the saw log portion of growing-stock volume has increased by 23 percent to 88 billion board feet. In the latest inventory, net growth exceeded removals for all major species. Detailed information on forest inventory methods and data quality estimates is included in a DVD at the back of this report. Tables of population estimates and a glossary are also included.

 

  8.  RP-NRS-18.  The use of Bacillus thuringiensis kurstaki for managing gypsy moth populations under the Slow the Spread Program, 1996-2010, relative to the distributional range of threatened and endangered species.  Blackburn, Laura M.; Leonard, Donna S.; Tobin, Patrick C.  20p.  

The Slow the Spread Program operates along the expanding population front of the gypsy moth, from Minnesota to North Carolina. The primary objective of the program is to eliminate newly-founded colonies that form ahead of the leading edge to reduce the gypsy moth's rate of spread and delay the costs associated with infestation and outbreaks. Although the majority of areas under the STS Program are treated with control methods specific to the gypsy moth, commercial formulations of Bacillus thuringiensis var. kurstaki (Btk) are the second most used tactic. Bacillus thuringiensis kurstaki can directly affect other Lepidoptera, as well as indirectly affect species that depend on Lepidoptera for pollination services or as a food source. Because of these nontarget effects, proposed treatment areas are always reviewed by the U.S. Department of Interior - Fish and Wildlife Service as well as state agencies that are responsible for the conservation of threatened and endangered species to ensure that government programs to control gypsy moth are not likely to have an adverse effect. In this report, we used a variety of sources to compile a spatial database of the historical distributional ranges of 21 threatened and endangered species that occur within the STS management area. We then quantified the area of overlap between areas treated with Btk under the STS Program from 1996 to 2010 and the distributional ranges of these species to evaluate the use of Btk with regard to federal and state management guidelines.

 

  9.  RP-NRS-19.  Tree species migration studies in the White Mountains of New Hampshire.  Leak, William B.; Yamasaki, Mariko.  8p.  

The movement of tree species in either latitude or elevation has attracted increased recent attention due to growing national/international concerns over climate change. However, studies on tree species movements began in the early 1970s in the White Mountains of New Hampshire, mostly due to ecological interests in the episodic behavior of upper-elevation tree species on some of the most scenic mountains. Observations taken while making elevational transects appeared to indicate that regeneration of some species was advancing or retreating in relation to the main stand of mature trees. This process was formalized into a graphical model that would predict rates of movement which was then tested on the Bartlett Experimental Forest located in the White Mountain National Forest. This paper describes the several types of migrational models that were developed as well as long-term remeasured plot evidence against significant recent changes in the species distributions.

 

  10.  RN-NRS-129.  Effects of acoustic deterrents on foraging bats.  Johnson, Joshua B.; Ford, W. Mark; Rodrigue, Jane L.; Edwards, John W.  5p.  

Significant bat mortality events associated with wind energy expansion, particularly in the Appalachians, have highlighted the need for development of possible mitigation practices to reduce or prevent strike mortality. Other than increasing turbine cut-in speed, acoustic deterrents probably hold the greatest promise for reducing bat mortality. However, acoustic deterrent effectiveness and practicality has not been experimentally examined and is limited to site-specific case studies. Accordingly, we used a crossover experimental design with prior control period to show that bat activity was reduced 17.1 percent by the deployment of ultrasonic deterrents placed around gauged watershed weir ponds on the Fernow Experimental Forest in West Virginia. We caution that while our results should not be extrapolated to the scope of a typical wind energy production facility, the results warrant further research on the use of acoustic deterrents to reduce bat fatalities.

 

Available Online Only

11.  GTR-NRS-85.  NED-2 User's Guide.  Twery, Mark J.; Knopp, Peter D.; Thomasma, Scott A.; Nute, Donald E.  193p.  

This is the user's guide for NED-2, which is the latest version of NED, a forest ecosystem management decision support system. This software is part of a family of software products intended to help resource managers develop goals, assess current and future conditions, and produce sustainable management plans for forest properties. Designed for stand-alone Windows-based personal computers, NED-2 integrates a variety of forest management tools into a single environment. These tools include databases, growth and yield models, wildlife models, geographic information systems (GIS), visualization tools, and others. This user's guide provides guidance for use of the software and a basic introduction to the principles and calculations used in NED-2. A reference guide with more detailed explanations of the models, equations, and rules that underlie the software is available separately http://www.nrs.fs.fed.us/pubs/40931/. The NED-2 software and related documentation may be downloaded from http://nrs.fs.fed.us/tools/ned/products/ned2/.

 

12.  GTR-NRS-86.  NED-2 reference guide.  Twery, Mark J.; Knopp, Peter D.; Thomasma, Scott A.; Nute, Donald E.  728p.  

This is the reference guide for NED-2, which is the latest version of NED, a forest ecosystem management decision support system. This software is part of a family of software products intended to help resource managers develop goals, assess current and future conditions, and produce sustainable management plans for forest properties. Designed for stand-alone Windows-based personal computers, NED-2 integrates a variety of forest management tools into a single environment. These tools include databases, growth and yield models, wildlife models, geographic information systems (GIS), visualization tools, and others. The software is distributed with an online help system and a user's guide http://www.nrs.fs.fed.us/pubs/39537/. This reference guide provides more detailed explanations of the models, equations, and rules that underlie the software. NED-2 software can be downloaded from http://nrs.fs.fed.us/tools/ned/products/ned2/.

 

13.  RB-NRS-60.  South Dakota's forests, 2005: statistics, methods, and quality assurance.  Miles, Patrick D.; Piva, Ronald J.; Barnett, Charles J.  65p.  

The first full annual inventory of South Dakota's forests was completed in 2005 after 8,302 plots were selected and 325 forested plots were visited and measured. This report includes detailed information on forest inventory methods and data quality estimates. Important resource statistics are included in the tables. A detailed analysis of the South Dakota inventory is presented in Resource Bulletin NRS-35 (www.nrs.fs.fed.us/pubs/rb/rb_nrs35.pdf).

This publication is a companion to South Dakota's forests 2005, Resource Bulletin NRS-35.

 

Resource Update

The following publications provide an overview of forest resource attributes for the respective State based on an annual inventory conducted by the Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) program at the Northern Research Station of the U.S. Forest Service. These are available only online.


RN-NRS-130.  Kansas' forest resources, 2011.  Moser, W.K.; Haugen, D.E.; Atchison, R.A.  4p.  

RN-NRS-131.  Indiana's forest resources, 2011.  Woodall, C.W.; Gallion, J.  4p.  

RN-NRS-132.  South Dakota's forest resources, 2011.  Walters, Brian F.  4p.  

RN-NRS-133.  Missouri's forest resources, 2011.  Moser, W.K.; Piva, R.J.; Treiman, T.B.  4p.  

RN-NRS-134.  Minnesota's forest resources, 2011.  Miles, P.D.; VanderSchaaf, C.L.  4p.  

RN-NRS-135.  Iowa's forest resources, 2011.  Nelson, M.D.; Brewer, M.; Domke, G.  4p.  

RN-NRS-136.  Wisconsin's forest resources, 2011.  Perry, C.H.  4p.  

RN-NRS-137.  Michigan's forest resources, 2011.  Pugh, S.A.  4p.  

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