New Station Publications

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Northern Research Station

  1.  GTR-NRS-80.  Assessment of Nitrogen deposition effects and empirical critical loads of Nitrogen for ecoregions of the United States.  Pardo, L.H.; Robin-Abbott, M.J.; Driscoll, C.T., eds.  291p.  

This report synthesizes current research relating atmospheric nitrogen (N) deposition to effects on terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems in the United States and to identify empirical critical loads for atmospheric N deposition. The report evaluates the following receptors: freshwater diatoms, mycorrhizal fungi and other soil microbes, lichens, herbaceous plants, shrubs, and trees. The main responses reported fell into two categories: (1) biogeochemical; and (2) individual species, population, and community responses. The range of critical loads for nutrient N reported for U.S. ecoregions, inland surface waters, and freshwater wetlands is 1 to 39 kg N ha-1 y-1. This range spans the range of N deposition observed over most of the country. The empirical critical loads for N tend to increase in the following sequence for different life forms: diatoms, lichens and bryophytes, mycorrhizal fungi, herbaceous plants and shrubs, trees.

 

  2.  GTR-NRS-81.  Silvicultural decisionmaking in an uncertain climate future: a workshop-based exploration of considerations, strategies, and approaches.  Janowiak, Maria K.; Swanston, Christopher W.; Nagel, Linda M.; Webster, Christopher R.; Palik, Brian J.; Twery, Mark J.; Bradford, John B.; Parker, Linda R.; Hille, Andrea T.; Johnson, Sheela M.  14p.  

Land managers across the country face the immense challenge of developing and applying appropriate management strategies as forests respond to climate change. We hosted a workshop to explore silvicultural strategies for addressing the uncertainties surrounding climate change and forest response in the northeastern and north-central United States. Outcomes of this workshop included identification of broad management strategies and approaches for creating forests that can adapt to rapidly changing conditions. Four themes were prevalent in the discussion of coping with climatic change: recognize relationships between site conditions and species vulnerability, maintain and increase diversity, increase discussion about assisted migration, and place a greater emphasis on monitoring. In this paper, we draw on the workshop to outline a process for presenting information and engaging land managers in discussion of forest management challenges in an era of climate uncertainty.

 

  3.  GTR-NRS-82.  Ecosystem vulnerability assessment and synthesis: a report from the Climate Change Response Framework Project in northern Wisconsin.  Swanston, Chris; Janowiak, Maria; Iverson, Louis; Parker, Linda; Mladenoff, David; Brandt, Leslie; Butler, Patricia; St. Pierre, Matt; Prasad, Anantha; Matthews, Stephen; Peters, Matthew; Higgins, Dale; Dorland, Avery.  142p.  

The forests of northern Wisconsin will likely experience dramatic changes over the next 100 years as a result of climate change. This assessment evaluates key forest ecosystem vulnerabilities to climate change across northern Wisconsin under a range of future climate scenarios. Warmer temperatures and shifting precipitation patterns are expected to influence ecosystem drivers and increase stressors, including more frequent disturbances and increased amount or severity of pests and diseases. Forest ecosystems will continue to adapt to changing conditions. Identifying vulnerable species and forests can help landowners, managers, regulators, and policymakers establish priorities for management and monitoring.

 

  4.  GTR-NRS-83.  Coopers Rock Crop Tree Demonstration Area—20-year results.  Perkey, Arlyn W.; Miller, Gary W.; Feicht, David L.  28p.  

During the 1988/1989 dormant season, the Coopers Rock Crop Tree Demonstration Area was established in a 55-year-old central Appalachian hardwood forest in north-central West Virginia. After treatment, 89 northern red oak (Quercus rubra L.) and 147 yellow-poplar (Liriodentron tulipifera L.) crop trees were monitored for 20 years. This report summarizes the growth in diameter at breast height (d.b.h.) and crown development of crop trees from age 55 to 75 after they received various degrees of crown release resulting from crop tree management and traditional area-wide thinning. Annual d.b.h. growth response is presented to illustrate the year-to-year fluctuations in growth that occurred throughout the demonstration area. In general, d.b.h. growth response and crown expansion were related to the degree of crown release. Northern red oak exhibited a greater response in d.b.h. growth and crown expansion than did yellow-poplar over the 20-year study period.

 

  5.  RB-NRS-48.  Maine's forests 2008.  McCaskill, George L.; McWilliams, William H.; Barnett, Charles J.; Butler, Brett J.; Hatfield, Mark A.; Kurtz, Cassandra M.; Morin, Randall S.; Moser, W. Keith; Perry, Charles H.; Woodall, Christopher W.  62p.  

The second annual inventory of Maine's forests was completed in 2008 after more than 3,160 forested plots were measured. Forest land occupies almost 17.7 million acres, which represents 82 percent of the total land area of Maine. The dominant forest-type groups are maple/beech/yellow birch, spruce/fir, white/red/jack pine, and aspen/white birch. Statewide volume equals 25.5 billion ft3, resulting from nearly 590 million ft3 of live-tree volume grown each year. The report also contains additional information on sustainability, biomass, carbon, forest health, land-use change, and timber products. The DVD includes detailed information on forest inventory methods, quality of estimates found, and tables forest statistics.

 

  6.  RB-NRS-50.  Minnesota's Forests 2008.  Miles, Patrick D.; Heinzen, David; Mielke, Manfred E.; Woodall, Christopher W.; Butler, Brett J.; Piva, Ron J.; Meneguzzo, Dacia M.; Perry, Charles H.; Gormanson, Dale D.; Barnett, Charles J.  67p.  

The second full annual inventory of Minnesota's forests reports 17 million acres of forest land with an average volume of more than 1,000 cubic feet per acre. Forest land is dominated by the aspen forest type, which occupies nearly 30 percent of the total forest land area. Twenty-eight percent of forest land consists of sawtimber, 35 percent poletimber, 35 percent sapling/seedlings, and 2 percent is nonstocked. Additional forest attribute and forest health information is presented along with information on agents of change including changing land use patterns and the introduction of nonnative plants, insects, and disease. Detailed information on forest inventory methods, data quality estimates, and important resource statistics can be found on the Statistics and Quality Assurance DVD included in this report.

 

  7.  RB-NRS-51.  Vermont's Forests 2007.  Morin, Randall S.; Barnett, Chuck J.; Brand, Gary J.; Butler, Brett J.; De Geus, Robert; Hansen, Mark H.; Hatfield, Mark A.; Kurtz, Cassandra M.; Moser, W. Keith; Perry, Charles H.; Piva, Ron; Riemann, Rachel; Widmann, Richard; Wilmot, Sandy; Woodall, Chris W.  56p.  

The first full annual inventory of Vermont's forests reports more than 4.5 million acres of forest land with an average volume of more than 2,200 cubic feet per acre. Forest land is dominated by the maple/beech/birch forest-type group, which occupies 70 percent of total forest land area. Sixty-three percent of forest land consists of large-diameter trees, 27 percent contains medium-diameter trees, and 9 percent contains small-diameter trees. The volume of growing stock on timberland has been rising since the 1980s and currently totals nearly 9 billion cubic feet. The average annual net growth of growing stock on timberland from 1997 to 2007 is approximately 180 million cubic feet per year. Additional information is presented on forest attributes, land use change, carbon, timber products, and forest health. Detailed information on forest inventory methods and data quality estimates is included in a DVD at the back of the report. Tables of population estimates and a glossary are also included.

 

  8.  RB-NRS-52.  Iowa's Forests 2008.  Nelson, Mark D.; Brewer, Matt; Woodall, Christopher W.; Perry, Charles H.; Domke, Grant M.; Piva, Ronald J.; Kurtz, Cassandra M.; Moser, W. Keith; Lister, Tonya W.; Butler, Brett J.; Meneguzzo, Dacia M.; Miles, Patrick D.; Barnett, Charles J.; Gormanson, Dale.  48p.  

The second full annual inventory of Iowa's forests (2004-2008) reports more than 3 million acres of forest land, almost all of which is timberland (98 percent), with an average volume of more than 1,000 cubic feet of growing stock per acre. American elm and eastern hophornbeam are the most numerous tree species, but silver maple and bur oak predominate in terms of live tree volume. Iowa's forest land is comprised of 65 percent sawtimber, 19 percent poletimber, and 16 percent sapling/seedling or nonstocked size classes. Average annual net growth of growing-stock trees on Iowa's timberland increased during the past decade to the current estimate of nearly 105 million cubic feet. This report includes additional information on forest attributes, land use change, carbon, timber products, and forest health. A DVD included in this report includes 1) descriptive information on methods, statistics, and quality assurance of data collection, 2) a glossary of terms, 3) tables that summarize quality assurance, 4) a core set of tabular estimates for a variety of forest resources, and 5) a Microsoft Access database that represents an archive of data used in this report, with tools that allow users to produce customized estimates.

 

  9.  RP-NRS-13.  Seventy-year record of changes in the composition of overstory species by elevation on the Bartlett Experimental Forest.  Leak, William B.; Yamasaki, Mariko.  12p.  

Remeasurements over a 70-year period (1931-1932 to 2002-2003) on 404 cruise plots on the Bartlett Experimental Forest in New Hampshire provided a record of landscape-level changes in the composition of overstory species over time by elevation and d.b.h. (diameter at breast height) classes. Typically, early to midsuccessional species declined while late successional species, especially hemlock, increased. The exception was at upper elevations (2,000 feet and higher), where natural wind disturbance maintained a variable component of paper and yellow birch. There is no evidence of species decline or migration that is inconsistent with natural succession or natural disturbance.

 

  10.  RP-NRS-14.  Chloride concentration gradients in tank-stored hydraulic fracturing fluids following flowback.  Edwards, Pamela J.; Tracy, Linda L.; Wilson, William K.  14p.  

A natural gas well in West Virginia was hydraulically fractured and the flowback was recovered and stored in an 18-foot-deep tank. Both in situ field test kit and laboratory measurements of electrical conductivity and chloride concentrations increased substantially with depth, although the laboratory measurements showed a greater increase. The field test kit also underestimated chloride concentrations in prepared standards when they exceeded 8,000 mg L-1, indicating that laboratory analyses or other more accurate methods of detection should be used to determine chloride concentrations in flowback when they may be approaching West Virginia regulatory levels (12,500 mg L-1) that disallow disposal by land application. The gradation of chloride with depth also has implications for procedures used to collect flowback samples from reserve pits or tanks before disposal to ensure the resulting composite chloride concentration is representative of the total volume.

 

  11.  RP-NRS-15.  Differences between standing and downed dead tree wood density reduction factors: A comparison across decay classes and tree species.  Harmon, Mark E.; Woodall, Christopher W.; Fasth, Becky; Sexton, Jay; Yatkov, Misha.  40p.  

Woody detritus or dead wood is an important part of forest ecosystems and has become a routine facet of forest monitoring and inventory. Biomass and carbon estimates of dead wood depend on knowledge of species- and decay class-specifi c density or density reduction factors. While some progress has been made in determining these parameters for dead and downed trees (DD), there are very few estimates of these key parameters for standing dead trees (SD). We evaluated indicators of decay to relate subjective SD and DD decay classifi cations then compared SD and DD density and density reduction factors by decay class for a total of 19 tree species at nine sites in the United States and Russia. Results indicate that SD density declined with decay class for all examined species. By applying these results, a new set of SD density reduction factors was developed for 260 species inventoried by the U.S. Forest Service's Forest Inventory and Analysis program in forests of the United States.

 

  12.  RN-NRS-115.  Estimating allowable-cut by area-scheduling.  Leak, William B.  4p.  

Estimation of the regulated allowable-cut is an important step in placing a forest property under management and ensuring a continued supply of timber over time. Regular harvests also provide for the maintenance of needed wildlife habitat. There are two basic approaches: (1) volume, and (2) area/volume regulation, with many variations of each. Some require sophisticated computational facilities and expertise along with extensive inventory data. The area-scheduling approach described herein, is a hands-on, low-tech method that provides safeguards against under- or overcutting.

 

Available Online Only

13.  GTR-P-NRS-84.  Proceedings of the second conference on the human dimensions of wildland fire.  McCaffrey, Sarah M.; Fisher, Cherie LeBlanc, eds.  195p.  

This proceedings contains articles, posters, and abstracts of presentations from the second Human Dimensions of Wildland Fire Conference held 27-29 April 2010 in San Antonio, Texas. The conference covered the social issues at the root of wildland fire managementís most serious challenges. Specific topics included: firefighter and public safety; social acceptance of fuels treatments; community and homeowner fire hazard mitigation; public responses during fires and fire-related evacuations; fire communication and education; and the performance of fire management organizations—from operational efficiency to cost management and from community relations to risk management. The conference included 59 presentations, three special sessions, and nine poster presentations. Conference attendees included fire researchers and wildland fire management practitioners from the United States, Australia, Canada, Portugal, England, and The Netherlands.

 

14.  GTR-NRS-85.  NED-2 User's Guide.  Twery, Mark J.; Knopp, Peter D.; Thomasma, Scott A.; Nute, Donald E.  193p.  

This is the user's guide for NED-2, which is the latest version of NED, a forest ecosystem management decision support system. This software is part of a family of software products intended to help resource managers develop goals, assess current and future conditions, and produce sustainable management plans for forest properties. Designed for stand-alone Windows-based personal computers, NED-2 integrates a variety of forest management tools into a single environment. These tools include databases, growth and yield models, wildlife models, geographic information systems (GIS), visualization tools, and others. This user's guide provides guidance for use of the software and a basic introduction to the principles and calculations used in NED-2. A reference guide with more detailed explanations of the models, equations, and rules that underlie the software is available separately http://www.nrs.fs.fed.us/pubs/40931/. The NED-2 software and related documentation may be downloaded from http://nrs.fs.fed.us/tools/ned/products/ned2/.

 

Resource Update

The following publications provide an overview of forest resource attributes for the respective State based on an annual inventory conducted by the Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) program at the Northern Research Station of the U.S. Forest Service. These are available only online.


RN-NRS-106.  Michigan's forest resources, 2010.  Pugh, S.A.  4p.  

RN-NRS-107.  Connecticut's forest resources, 2010.  Butler, Brett J.; Kurtz, Cassandra; Martin, Christopher; Moser, W. Keith.  4p.  

RN-NRS-108.  Wisconsin's forest resources, 2010.  Perry, C.H.  4p.  

RN-NRS-109.  New Hampshire's forest resources, 2010.  Morin, R.S.; Nelson, M.  4p.  

RN-NRS-110.  Maine's forest resources, 2010.  McCaskill, G.L.; McWilliams, W.H.; Morin, R.S.  4p.  

RN-NRS-111.  South Dakota's forest resources, 2010.  Walters, Brian F.; Piva, Ronald J.  4p.  

RN-NRS-112.  Minnesota's forest resources, 2010.  Miles, P.D.; Aunan, T.  4p.  

RN-NRS-113.  Rhode Island's forest resources, 2010.  Butler, Brett J.; Kurtz, Cassandra; Moser, W. Keith; Payton, Bruce.  4p.  

RN-NRS-114.  Massachusetts' forest resources, 2010.  Butler, Brett J.; Hill, William N.; Kurtz, Cassandra; Moser, W. Keith.  4p.  

RN-NRS-116.  Delaware's forest resources, 2010.  Lister, T.W.; Gladders, G.  4p.  

RN-NRS-117.  Missouri's forest resources, 2010.  Moser, W.K.; Barnett, C.H.; Hansen, M.H.; Kurtz, C.M.; Treiman, T.B.  4p.  

RN-NRS-118.  Iowa's forest resources, 2010.  Nelson, M.D.; Brewer, M.  4p.  

RN-NRS-119.  Nebraska's forest resources, 2010.  Meneguzzo, D.M.  4p.  

RN-NRS-120.  Illinois' forest resources, 2010.  Crocker, S.J.  4p.  

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