New Station Publications

Welcome to the electronic version of the Northern Research Station's New Publications List 1 - 2011

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Northern Research Station

  1.  GTR-NRS-67.  FORCARB2: An updated version of the U.S. Forest Carbon Budget Model.  Heath, Linda S.; Nichols, Michael C.; Smith, James E.; Mills, John R.  52p.  

FORCARB2, an updated version of the U.S. FORest CARBon Budget Model (FORCARB), produces estimates of carbon stocks and stock changes for forest ecosystems and forest products at 5-year intervals. FORCARB2 includes a new methodology for carbon in harvested wood products, updated initial inventory data, a revised algorithm for dead wood, and now includes public forest land, reserved forest land, and forest land of low productivity. The model has been used to provide estimates and projections for policy-related needs, including the Resources Planning Act timber resource assessment and forest-related greenhouse gas inventories of the United States, and has provided the basis for an analysis of forest carbon for Ontario, Canada. The program is written in FORTRAN and is text based, though virtually every parameter is defined by input text-based files that can be modified or built by the user. We expect users who are fairly advanced in terms of knowledge about computers will be most capable in using this model. Step-by-step instructions for running the program, input and output files, and codes used are included, and input files for public forest lands of the United States are provided as an example. All electronic files for download, including the model source code, executable files, and input and output files are available at


  2.  GTR-NRS-68.  Culturally and economically important nontimber forest products of northern Maine.  Baumflek, Michelle J.; Emery, Marla R.; Ginger, Clare.  74p.  

Nontimber forest products (NTFPs) gathered for food, medicine, craft, spiritual, aesthetic, and utilitarian purposes make substantial contributions to the economic viability and cultural vitality of communities. In the St. John River watershed of northern Maine, people identifying with cultural groups including Acadian, Maliseet, Mi'kmaq, Scotch-Irish, and Swedish use more than 120 wild plant and fungus species. We interviewed both gatherers and land managers about NTFP uses that are significant in this region and about factors that facilitate or limit gathering, including access to gathering sites. This handbook and its accompanying Web site ( present our overall study findings as well as in-depth species profiles of 30 nontimber forest products including brown ash, paper birch, blueberries, highbush cranberry, and fiddleheads.


  3.  GTR-NRS-69.  Mechanized systems for harvesting eastern hardwoods.  LeDoux, Chris B.  13p.  

In the central Appalachian region, hardwoods traditionally have been harvested by chainsaw felling with trees and logs extracted from the forest to landings by rubber-tired skidders, bulldozers, and crawler tractors. In recent years, mechanized systems that include feller bunchers and cut-to-length (CTL) processors coupled with forwarders and clambunk and grapple skidders have been used increasingly to harvest Eastern hardwoods. Feller bunchers fell trees and pile stems or logs in bunches. CTL processors fell trees and delimb them, buck the stems into logs, and pile them in presorted bunches. Wood piles and bunches are transported to landings by a clambunk or grapple skidder or a forwarder. These system combinations for processing and transporting essentially eliminate the need for woods workers on the ground, a major advantage from a production and safety standpoint, and greatly reduce adverse effects on the site compared to chainsaw felling and conventional skidding. Feller buncher and CTL systems are reviewed, results of environmental impact studies are presented, and cost equations for a range of operating conditions in Eastern hardwoods are provided.


  4.  GTR-NRS-71.  Approaches for estimating critical loads of N and S deposition for forest ecosystems on U.S. federal lands.  Pardo, Linda H.  25p.  

Projected emissions of sulfur and nitrogen are expected to have continuing negative impacts on forests, in spite of reductions in sulfur emissions as a result of SO2 control programs. Sulfur and nitrogen emissions present serious long-term threats to forest health and productivity in the United States. This report is intended to explain the differences in approaches for calculating critical loads for forest ecosystems in Europe, Canada, and the United States; it is directed to air quality regulators and Federal Land Managers (FLMs) in the United States, and addresses concerns particular to U.S. Federal lands. The paper describes the basic mass balance approach for calculating critical loads, presents the various critical thresholds, and explains the assumptions inherent in the calculation and data selection procedure. The input necessary from FLMs in the process of estimating the critical load is described.


  5.  GTR-P-NRS-72.  Proceedings of symposium on ash in North America.  Michler, Charles H.; Ginzel, Matthew D., eds.  64p.  

Includes 5 papers and 30 abstracts covering topics related to the biology and ecology of the ash species, ash utilization and management, emerald ash borer, and other threats to ash, and genetics and conservation of ash species.

A paper titled "Population-level variation of Fraxinus americana L. is influenced by climate differences across the native range" has been retracted by the author on February 8, 2016. Pages 45-53.


  6.  GTR-NRS-73.  Threats to at-risk species in America's private forests: a Forests on the Edge report.  Carr, Mary A.; McRoberts, Ronald E.; Mahal, Lisa G.; Comas, Sara J.  20p.  

More than 4,600 native animal and plant species associated with private forests in the United States are at risk of decline or extinction. This report identifies areas across the conterminous United States where at-risk species habitats in rural private forests are most likely to decrease because of increases in housing density from 2000 to 2030. We also identify areas where the future of forested habitats for at-risk species could be compromised by additional pressures from wildfire, insects, and disease.


  7.  RB-NRS-42.  Michigan timber industry: an assessment of timber product output and use, 2006.  Piva, Ronald J.; Weatherspoon, Anthony K.  66p.  

Presents recent Michigan forest industry trends; production and receipts of industrial roundwood; and production of saw logs, veneer logs, pulpwood, and other products in 2006. Logging residue generated from timber harvest operations is reported, as well as wood and bark residue generated at primary wood-using mills and disposition of mill residues.


  8.  RP-NRS-10.  Reptile, amphibian, and small mammal species associated with natural gas development in the Monongahela National Forest, West Virginia.  Moseley, Kurtis R.; Ford, W. Mark; Edwards, John W.; Adams, Mary B.  14p.  

Burgeoning energy demand in the United States has led to increased natural gas exploration in the Appalachian Basin. Despite increasing natural gas development in the region, data about its impacts to wildlife are lacking. Our objective was to assess past and ongoing natural gas development impacts on reptiles, amphibians, and small mammals in the Monongahela National Forest in West Virginia. We sampled 40 gas well sites and compared amphibian, reptile, and small mammal captures among active producing, plugged (inactive), and storage well types. Total species richness and diversity were greater at storage gas well sites than at plugged wells. Although natural gas development adversely impacts moisture-sensitive woodland salamanders, our results suggest that maintained gas well openings may benefit other herpetofauna and small mammal species that use early successional habitat within predominately forested central Appalachian landscapes.


  9.  RP-NRS-11.  Evaluation of techniques for determining the density of fine woody debris.  Fasth, Becky; Harmon, Mark E.; Woodall, Christopher W.; Sexton, Jay.  18p.  

Evaluated various techniques for determining the density (i.e., bulk density) of fine woody debris during forest inventory activities. It was found that only experts in dead wood inventory may be able to identify fine woody debris stages of decay. Suggests various future research directions such as development of a 2-class fine woody debris decay class system.


Available Online Only

10.  GTR-NRS-70.  Ash seed collection: slingshot method.  Knight, Kathleen S.  2p.  

Video; 4:08 min. in length


11.  RB-NRS-43.  Assessing urban forest effects and values, Scranton's urban forest.  Nowak, David J.; Hoehn, Robert E. III; Crane, Daniel E.; Stevens, Jack C.; Cotrone, Vincent.  23p.  

An analysis of trees in the urbanized portion of Scranton, PA, reveals that this area has about 1.2 million trees with canopies that cover 22.0 percent of the area. The most common tree species are red maple, gray birch, black cherry, northern red oak, and quaking aspen. Scranton's urban forest currently store about 93,300 tons of carbon valued at $1.9 million. In addition, these trees remove about 4,000 tons of carbon per year ($83,000 per year) and about 65 tons of air pollution per year ($514,000 per year). Trees in urban Scranton are estimated to reduce annual residential energy costs by $628,000 per year. The structural, or compensatory, value is estimated at $322 million. Information on the structure and functions of the urban forest can be used to inform urban forest management programs and to integrate urban forests within plans to improve environmental quality in the Scranton area.


12.  RB-NRS-44.  Kansas's forests, 2005: statistics, methods, and quality assurance.  Miles, Patrick D.; Moser, W. Keith; Barnett, Charles J.  76p.  

The first full annual inventory of Kansas's forests was completed in 2005 after 8,868 plots were selected and 468 forested plots were visited and measured. This report includes detailed information on forest inventory methods and data quality estimates. Important resource statistics are included in the tables. A detailed analysis of Kansas inventory is presented in Resource Bulletin NRS-26.


13.  RN-NRS-74.  Bulletin of hardwood market statistics: 2009.  Jones, Melody.  23p.  

Provides current and historical information on primary and secondary hardwood products, production, prices, international trade, and employment.


Resource Update

The following publications provide an overview of forest resource attributes for the respective State based on an annual inventory conducted by the Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) program at the Northern Research Station of the U.S. Forest Service. These are available only online.

RN-NRS-75.  South Dakota's forest resources, 2008.  Piva, Ronald J.  4p.  

RN-NRS-76.  Indiana's forest resources, 2009.  Woodall, C.W.; Webb, M.N.; Crocker, S.J.  4p.  

RN-NRS-77.  New Jersey's forest resources, 2008.  Crocker, Susan. J.  4p.  

RN-NRS-78.  Minnesota's forest resources, 2009.  Miles, P.D.; Heinzen, D.  4p.  

RN-NRS-79.  Kansas' forest resources, 2009.  Moser, W.K.; Hansen, M.H.; Barnett, C.H.; Atchison, R.A.  4p.  

RN-NRS-80.  Missouri's forest resources, 2009.  Moser, W.K.; Barnett, C.H.; Hansen, M.H.; Treiman, T.B.  4p.  

RN-NRS-81.  Michigan's forest resources, 2009.  Pugh, S.A.  4p.  

RN-NRS-82.  South Dakota's forest resources, 2009.  Piva, Ronald J.  4p.  

RN-NRS-83.  North Dakota's forest resources, 2009.  Haugen, D.E.  4p.  

RN-NRS-84.  New Hampshire's forest resources, 2009.  Morin, R.S.  4p.  

RN-NRS-85.  Vermont's forest resources, 2009.  Morin, R.S.; De Geus, R.; Wilmot, S.  4p.  

RN-NRS-86.  Delaware's forest resources, 2009.  Lister, T.W.; Gladders, G.  4p.  

RN-NRS-87.  Maryland's forest resources, 2009.  Lister, T.W.; Perdue, J.; Lister, A.  4p.  

RN-NRS-88.  Pennsylvania's forest resources, 2007.  McCaskill, G.L.; McWilliams, W.H.; Butler, B.J.; Meneguzzo, D.M.; Barnett, C.J.; Hansen, M.H.  6p.  

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