New Station Publications

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Northern Research Station

  1.  GTR-P-NRS-31.  Biofuels, bioenergy, and bioproducts from sustainable agricultural and forest crops: proceedings of the short rotation crops international conference.  Zalesny, Ronald S., Jr.; Mitchell, Rob; Richardson, Jim, eds.  1-76p.  

The goal of this conference was to initiate and provide opportunities for an international forum on the science and application of producing both agricultural and forest crops for biofuels, bioenergy, and bioproducts. There is a substantial global need for development of such systems and technologies that can economically and sustainably produce short rotation crops across multiple temporal and spatial scales. Topic areas were biological and environmental; and economic and policy implications of sustainable biofuels, bioenergy, and bioproducts. Presentations addressed anatomy, breeding, genetics, physiology, ecosystem services, phytotechnologies, and production systems, as well as conversion technologies, costs and operational feasibility, environmental impacts and review, social factors, policy issues, and regional logistics. Seventy-four abstracts from oral and poster presentations are included in these proceedings. CD-ROM.


  2.  GTR-P-NRS-32.  Tenth workshop on seedling physiology and growth problems in oak plantings.  Lockhart, Brian Roy; Gardiner, Emile S.; Dey, Daniel C.  1-18p.  

Research results and ongoing research activities in field performance of oak plantings, seedling propagation, genetics, acorn germination, and natural regeneration of oaks are described in 15 abstracts.


  4.  GTR-NRS-34.  Ozone bioindicators and forest health: a guide to the evaluation, analysis, and interpretation of the ozone injury data in the Forest Inventory and Analysis Program.  Smith, Gretchen C.; Coulston, John W.; O'Connell, Barbara M.  100p.  

In 1994, the Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) and Forest Health Monitoring programs of the U.S. Forest Service implemented a national ozone (O3) biomonitoring program designed to address specific questions about the area and percent of forest land subject to levels of O3 pollution that may negatively affect the forest ecosystem. This is the first and only nationally consistent effort to monitor O3 stress on the forests of the United States. This report provides background information on O3 and its effects on trees and ecosystems, and describes the rationale behind using sensitive bioindicator plants to detect O3 stress and assess the risk of probable O3 impact. Also included are a description of field methods, analytic techniques, estimation procedures, and how to access, use and interpret the ozone bioindicator attributes and data outputs such as the national ozone risk map.


  5.  GTR-NRS-35.  Opportunities and challenges for the export of U.S. value-added wood products to China.  Bowe, Scott; Bumgardner, Matt; Mace, Terry.  1-28p.  

This report explores some of the opportunities for, and challenges associated with, exporting wood products to China. Five topics are examined: an overview of trends in forestry and forest products in China, export opportunities and challenges for U.S. primary wood producers (Study 1), export opportunities and challenges for U.S. secondary wood producers (Study 2), relevant barriers to trade, and a compilation of state export resources. This work is based on observations from three trade missions to China (March 2004, March 2005, and July 2006), interviews with persons knowledgeable with hardwood markets in China, and two surveys of Chinese forest products business groups.


  6.  GTR-P-NRS-36.  Proceedings 19th U.S. Department of Agriculture Interagency Research Forum on Invasive Species 2008.  McManus, Katherine A.; Gottschalk, Kurt W., eds.  1-100p.  

Contains abstracts and papers of 67 oral and poster presentations on invasive species biology, molecular biology, ecology, impacts, and management presented at the annual U.S. Department of Agriculture Interagency Research Forum on Invasive Species.


  7.  GTR-NRS-37.  Cost analysis and biological ramifications for implementing the gypsy moth Slow the Spread Program.  Tobin, Patrick C.  1-21p.  

The gypsy moth Slow the Spread Program aims to reduce the rate of gypsy moth, Lymantria dispar (L.), spread into new areas in the United States. The annual budget for this program has ranged from $10-13 million. Changes in funding levels can have important ramifications to the implementation of this program, and consequently affect the rate of gypsy moth spread. This report presents a cost analysis for implementing the Slow the Spread Program across a range of funding levels, and predicts the consequent changes in gypsy moth spread rates. This work should be useful to program managers in implementing the Slow the Spread Program given yearly financial constraints, and more generally could serve as a template for barrier zone management programs against other nonindigenous species.


  8.  GTR-NRS-38.  Urban and community forests of New England: Connecticut, Maine, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, Rhode Island, Vermont.  Nowak, David J.; Greenfield, Eric J.  1-62p.  

This report details how land cover and urbanization vary within the states of Connecticut, Maine, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, Rhode Island, and Vermont by community (incorporated and census designated places), county subdivision, and county. Specifically this report provides critical urban and community forestry information for each state including human population characteristics and trends, changes in urban and community lands, tree canopy and impervious surface cover characteristics, distribution of land-cover classes, a relative comparison of urban and community forests among local government types, determination of priority areas for tree planting, and a summary of urban tree benefits. Report information can improve the understanding, management, and planning of urban and community forests. The data from this report is reported for each state on the CD provided in the back of this book, and it may be accessed by state at:


  9.  RB-NRS-25.  Minnesota timber industry--an assessment of timber product output and use, 2004.  Reading, William H., IV.; Jacobson, Keith.  1-74p.  

Discusses recent forest industry trends in Minnesota; reports production and receipts of industrial roundwood by product, species, and county in 2004. Also reports on logging residue, on wood and bark residue generated at primary wood-using mills, and on disposition of mills residue.


  10.  RB-NRS-26.  Kansas forests 2005.  Moser, W. Keith; Hansen, Mark H.; Atchison, Robert L.; Brand, Gary J.; Butler, Brett J.; Crocker, Susan J.; Meneguzzo, Dacia M.; Nelson, Mark D.; Perry, Charles H.; Reading, William H. IV; Wilson, Barry T.; Woodall, Christopher W.  1-125p.  

The first completed annual inventory of Kansas forests reports 2.1 million acres of forest land, roughly 4 percent of the total land area in the State. Softwood forests account for nearly 5 percent of the total timberland area. Oak/hickory forest types make up 56 percent of the total hardwood forest land area. Elm/ash/cottonwood accounts for more than 30 percent of the timberland area. The proportion of Kansas' timberland with trees 19 inches and larger remained about the same over the last 40 years (38 percent in 1965 versus 38 percent today). Kansas' forests have continued to increase in volume. In 2005, net volume of growing stock on timberland was an estimated 1.5 billion cubic feet compared with 0.5 billion cubic feet in 1965. Live-tree biomass on forest land in Kansas amounted to 72.3 million dry tons in 2005. More than 3 percent was in small stands, 26 percent was in medium-size stands, and 71 percent was in large stands. Oak species account for nearly 15 percent. About 95 percent of Kansas forest land is held by private landowners.


  11.  RB-NRS-27.  Nebraska's forests, 2005.  Meneguzzo, Dacia M.; Butler, Brett J.; Crocker, Susan J.; Haugen, David E.; Moser, W. Keith; Perry, Charles H.; Wilson, Barry T.; Woodall, Christopher W.  1-94p.  

Results of the first annual inventory of Nebraska's forests (2001-05) show an estimated 1.24 million acres of forest land; 1.17 million acres meet the definition of timberland. Softwood forest types account for one-third of all forest land area, with ponderosa pine being the most prevalent type. Hardwood forest types comprise 58 percent of Nebraska's forest land. Elm/ash/cottonwood is the predominant forest-type group in the State, accounting for 26 percent of all forest land area. Live-tree volume on timberland increased from 1.3 to 1.8 billion cubic feet between the 1994 and 2005 inventories. This report includes information on forest attributes, forest health, and agents of change: the introduction of nonnative invasive plants, insects and diseases, and the rapid expansion of eastern redcedar.


  12.  RB-NRS-28.  Nebraska timber Industry--an assessment of timber product output and use, 2006.  Piva, Ronald J.; Adams, Dennis M.  1-54p.  

Presents recent Nebraska forest industry trends; production and receipts of industrial roundwood; and production of saw logs, veneer logs, excelsior/shavings, and other products in 2006. Logging residue generated from timber harvest operations is reported, as well as wood and bark residue generated at primary wood-using mills and disposition of mill residues.


  13.  RB-NRS-32.  Ohio roundwood utilization by the timber industry in 2006.  Wiedenbeck, Jan; Sabula, Andy.  1-18p.  

To identify changes in the structure, size, and wood raw material inputs of the primary wood processing industry in Ohio, the Ohio Division of Forestry and the U.S. Forest Service conduct a periodic survey of this sector. The current assessment of the state of the primary wood products industry in Ohio is based on information collected for the period 2003 through 2006. Average annual roundwood removals from Ohio forest lands are estimated to have been 91.2 million cubic feet during the period, virtually the same as the harvest level found by the previous survey in 1989. This volume includes 5.2 million cubic feet of saw logs and veneer logs exported to other countries, 62.5 million cubic feet of logs for domestic use, 23.5 million cubic feet of pulpwood. Of the log volume harvested from Ohio forests that was consumed domestically, 96.5 percent was processed by the State's 197 sawmills while veneer mills processed only 0.7 percent. Of the pulpwood volume, 74 percent was consumed by the pulp and paper industry and the remaining 26 percent was consumed by the engineered wood products industry, predominantly by panel (oriented strand board) manufacturers. Considering saw log transfers among states (excluding international shipments), the ratio of imports to exports for Ohio is 5.6 to 1, indicating that Ohio remains a net importer of saw logs.


  14.  RP-NRS-6.  Early crop-tree release and species cleaning in young northern hardwoods: a financial analysis.  Sendak, Paul E.; Leak, William B.  1-13p.  

In 1959 a study of crop-tree release and species cleaning was established in a 25-year-old northern hardwood stand growing on an above-average hardwood site that resulted from a silvicultural clearcut in the White Mountains of New Hampshire. The stand was followed for 5 years and based on the results, treatment effects were projected to a stand age of 45 years. These projections were subjected to a financial analysis. The treatment plots were tallied at stand ages 56 years (1990) and 69 years (2003). The financial analyses were repeated based on these more recent data and the original results and conclusions were re-examined.


Available Online Only

3.  GTR-NRS-33.  Prescribing regeneration treatments for mixed-oak forests in the Mid-Atlantic region.  Brose, Patrick H.; Gottschalk, Kurt W.; Horsley, Stephen B.; Knopp, Peter D.; Kochenderfer, James N.; McGuinness, Barbara J.; Miller, Gary W.; Ristau, Todd E.; Stoleson, Scott H.; Stout, Susan L.  1-100p.  

Includes guidelines for using the SILVAH decision-support system to perpetuate oak forests in the Mid-Atlantic region. Six chapters provide information on values of oak forests, inventory methods, key decision variables, decision charts, and silvicultural prescriptions, as well as guidance on fostering young stands. Sample tally sheets and SILVAH computer printouts are included in the Appendix.


Resource Update

The following publications provide an overview of forest resource attributes for the respective State based on an annual inventory conducted by the Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) program at the Northern Research Station of the U.S. Forest Service. These are available only online.

RN-NRS-19.  Maryland's Forest Resources, 2006.  Lister, T.W.; Perdue, J.  1-4p.  

RN-NRS-20.  Indiana's Forest Resources, 2007.  Woodall, C.W.; Gallion, J.  1-4p.  

RN-NRS-21.  New Jersey's Forest Resources, 2006.  Widmann, R.H.  1-4p.  

RN-NRS-22.  Ohio's Forest Resources, 2006.  Widmann, R.H.  1-4p.  

RN-NRS-23.  West Virginia's Forest Resources, 2006.  Widmann, Richard H.; Cook, Gregory W.  1-4p.  

RN-NRS-24.  Minnesota's Forest Resources, 2007.  Miles, P.D.; Heinzen, D.  1-4p.  

RN-NRS-25.  Pennsylvania's Forest Resources, 2006.  McWilliams, William H.  1-4p.  

RN-NRS-26.  Wisconsin's Forest Resources, 2007.  Perry, C.H.; Everson, V.A.  1-4p.  

RN-NRS-27.  Delaware's Forest Resources, 2006.  Lister, T.W.; Gladders, G.  1-4p.  

RN-NRS-28.  Michigan's Forest Resources, 2007.  Pugh, S.A.  1-4p.  

RN-NRS-29.  Missouri's Forest Resources, 2007.  Moser, W.K.; Hansen, M.H.; Crocker, S.J.; Treiman, T.B.  1-4p.  

RN-NRS-30.  Kansas' Forest Resources, 2007.  Moser, W.K.; Hansen, M.H.; Atchison, R.L.  1-4p.  

RN-NRS-31.  North Dakota's Forest Resources, 2007.  Haugen, D.E.; Kangas, M.  1-4p.  

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