Woody vegetation following even-aged, uneven-aged, and no-harvest treatments on the Missouri Ozark Forest Ecosystem Project Sites
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In: Shifley, S. R.; Kabrick, J. M., eds. Proceedings of the Second Missouri Ozark Forest Ecosystem Project Symposium: Post-treatment Results of the Landscape Experiment. Gen. Tech. Rep. NC-227. St. Paul, MN: U.S. Dept. of Agriculture, Forest Service, North Central Forest Experiment Station. 84-101.
The Missouri Ozark Forest Ecosystem Project (MOFEP) experimentally tests forest ecosystem response to (a) even-aged management with clearcutting, (b) uneven-aged management with single-tree and group selection, and (c) no-harvesting. The nine MOFEP experimental sites in the southeast Missouri Ozarks are small landscapes ranging from 772 ac (312 ha) to 1,271 ac (514 ha) in extent. In 1996-97, each of the nine sites received one of the three treatments. Clearcutting and thinning affected 26 percent of the total area on the three sites receiving the even-aged management treatment. Selection and group selection harvests affected 57 percent of the total area on the three sites receiving the uneven-aged treatment. The treatments significantly (P<0.05) reduced the mean number of trees, basal area, and canopy cover per acre on the harvested sites, but mean diameter was unchanged. Following treatment, the relative size distribution of trees by diameter class was virtually identical for each of the three treatments. Black oak (Quercus velutina Lam.) and scarlet oak (Q. coccinea Muenchh.) in combination comprised 60 percent of the harvested basal area; white oak (Q. alba L.) and post oak (Q. stellata Wangenh.) accounted for an additional 20 to 30 percent. On a percentage basis, harvested trees included more scarlet and black oak basal area and less white oak and shortleaf pine (Pinus echinata Mill.) basal area than the sites had prior to harvest. Between 1995 and 1998, the total basal area on no-harvest sites increased an average of 1 ft?/ac (0.2 m?/ha). Trees between 3.3 ft (1 m) tall to 0.5 in. (1.3 cm) d.b.h. increased in number only in stands that were harvested by single-tree and group selection methods. Small trees decreased in all other treatments except those that were not harvested or thinned. Trees between 0.5 in. (1.3 cm) and 1.5 in. (4 cm) d.b.h. decreased in all stands that were harvested; the greatest decrease occurred in clearcut stands. In either size class, differences in pre- and post-harvest abundance were small and species composition did not change consistently as a result of treatments. More than 700 stump sprouts per acre (1,700/ha) occurred in clearcuts; fewer than 120/ac (300/ha) occurred in areas harvested by a combination of single-tree and group selection. Single-tree selection harvests in the uneven-aged treatment and intermediate thinning in the even-aged treatments resulted in 42 and 36 sprouts per acre (104 and 89/ha), respectively. Stands without harvesting averaged fewer than 7 sprouts per acre (17/ha). Overall, the greatest changes in reproduction-sized trees occurred with stump sprouts of which nearly half were oaks. On all sites, white oak had the greatest basal area ingrowth. In addition to providing information on stand and site response to timber harvesting, the results reported in this paper provide information necessary to analyze how other components of the ecosystem (e.g., understory vegetation, animals, microclimate) responded to harvest treatments.
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Kabrick, John M.; Jensen, Randy G.; Shifley, Stephen R.; Larsen, David R. 2002. Woody vegetation following even-aged, uneven-aged, and no-harvest treatments on the Missouri Ozark Forest Ecosystem Project Sites. In: Shifley, S. R.; Kabrick, J. M., eds. Proceedings of the Second Missouri Ozark Forest Ecosystem Project Symposium: Post-treatment Results of the Landscape Experiment. Gen. Tech. Rep. NC-227. St. Paul, MN: U.S. Dept. of Agriculture, Forest Service, North Central Forest Experiment Station. 84-101.