Urban tree influences on ultraviolet irradiance
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In: Slusser, James R.; Herman, Jay R.; Gao, Wei, eds. Proceedings of SPIE: Ultraviolet ground- and space-based measurements, models, and effects: Volume 4482; 2001 July 30 - August 1; San Diego, CA: 277-290.
Many of the effects of ultraviolet radiation (UVR) on people and their environment - damage to various materials, survival of insects and microbial pathogens, growth of vegetation, and adverse or beneficial effects on human health - are modified by the presence of trees. Human epidemiological investigations generally consider exposure as given by indices of UVR irradiance on horizontal surfaces in the open. Though many people are exposed to UVR while reclining at a beach or swimming pool, thus experiencing irradiance on essentially horizontal surfaces in the open, exposure to UVR during daily routines in urban arras may also be important in affecting human health. Tree influences on UVR irradiance, particularly in the UVB, can differ substantially from influences on the visible portion of the solar spectrum. Trees greatly reduce UVB irradiance in their shade when they obscure both the sun and sky. Where trees obscure the sun but leave much of the sky in view, UVB irradiance will be greater than suggested by the visible shadow. In small sunny areas near trees that block much of the sky from view, UVB irradiance is reduced substantially, whereas visible irradiance may be nearly as great or slightly greater than in the open.
Heisler, Gordon M.; Grant, Richard H.; Gao, Wei. 2002. Urban tree influences on ultraviolet irradiance. In: Slusser, James R.; Herman, Jay R.; Gao, Wei, eds. Proceedings of SPIE: Ultraviolet ground- and space-based measurements, models, and effects: Volume 4482; 2001 July 30 - August 1; San Diego, CA: 277-290.