Seasonal differences in freezing tolerance of yellow-cedar and western hemlock trees at a site affected by yellow-cedar decline
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Canadian Journal of Forest Research.35: 2065-2070.
To assess whether inadequate cold hardiness could be a contributor to yellow-cedar (Chamaecyparis nootkatensis (D. Don) Spach) decline, we measured the freezing tolerance of foliage from yellow-cedar trees in closed-canopy (nondeclining) and open-canopy (declining at elevations below 130 m) stands at three sites along an elevational gradient in the heart of the decline in southeastern Alaska. Foliar freezing tolerance was also assessed for sympatric nondeclining western hemlock (Tsuga heterophylla (Raf.) Sarg.). Measurements were made in the fall, winter, and spring to evaluate if seasonal differences in cold hardiness help explain species-specific injury. Significant differences in freezing tolerance attributable to site, canopy closure, species, and the interaction of canopy closure and species were each detected for at least one sample period. However, only two results were consistent with field reports of yellow-cedar decline: (I) between winter and spring measurements, yellow-cedar trees dehardened almost 13 ?C more than western hemlock trees, so that yellow-cedar trees were more vulnerable to foliar freezing injury in spring than hemlock: and (2) stands below 130 m appeared more vulnerable to freezing injury than stands above 130 m.
Schaberg, Paul G.; Hennon, Paul E.; D, Amore, David V.; Hawley, Gary J.; Borer, Catherine H. 2005. Seasonal differences in freezing tolerance of yellow-cedar and western hemlock trees at a site affected by yellow-cedar decline. Canadian Journal of Forest Research.35: 2065-2070.