Variation in winter survival of the invasive hemlock woolly adelgid (Hemiptera: Adelgidae) across the eastern United States
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Environmental Entomology. 38(3): 557-587.
The hemlock woolly adelgid (Adelges tsugae Annand) is a small, aphid-like insect native to East Asia and western North America. First documented in the eastern United States in Richmond, VA, in 1951, it has spread to at least 17 states, where it causes increased mortality among both eastern and Carolina hemlocks (Tsuga canadensis Carrière and T. caroliniana Engelmann., respectively). Previous work has suggested low temperatures may limit northward spread of the adelgid. Using recent surveys of A. tsugae mortality across the infested latitudinal gradient of the eastern United States, we show there is a signifcant positive relationship between minimum winter temperatures and winter survival at the landscape scale. The strength and nature of this relationship, however, varies through time, with absolute minimum winter temperatures explaining almost one half of the tree-level variance in survival in the spring of 2004 but only 9% in 2003.
Keywordsinvasive species; climate; landscape; Adelges tsugae; hemlock
Trotter, R. Talbot, III; Shields, Kathleen S. 2009. Variation in winter survival of the invasive hemlock woolly adelgid (Hemiptera: Adelgidae) across the eastern United States. Environmental Entomology. 38(3): 557-587.