Publication Details

Historical patterns of spruce budworm defoliation and bark beetle outbreaks in North American conifer forests: an atlas and description of digital maps

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Williams, David W.; Birdsey, Richard A.

Year Published

2003

Publication

Gen. Tech. Rep. NE-308. Newtown Square, PA: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Northeastern Research Station. 33 p.

Abstract

This atlas presents maps of historical defoliation by the eastern and western spruce budworms and historical outbreaks of the mountain and southern pine beetles during the past half century. The maps encompass various regions of the conterminous United States and eastern Canada. This publication also serves as documentation for an extended set of digital maps, which are available on our website. The digital maps are useful for investigating spatial dynamics of insect populations and for providing pest disturbance inputs to spatially explicit forest simulation models.

Citation

Williams, David W.; Birdsey, Richard A. 2003. Historical patterns of spruce budworm defoliation and bark beetle outbreaks in North American conifer forests: an atlas and description of digital maps. Gen. Tech. Rep. NE-308. Newtown Square, PA: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Northeastern Research Station. 33 p. https://doi.org/10.2737/NE-GTR-308.

Last updated on: August 22, 2006