Residual survival and local dispersal drive reinfestation by Triatoma dimidiata following insecticide application in Guatemala
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Infection, Genetics and Evolution
Chagas disease is caused by the protozoan parasite Trypanosoma cruzi and transmitted by triatomine insect vectors. In Guatemala, insecticide spraying is an integral part of management of the main vector, Triatoma dimidiata. Spraying typically has low efficacy, which may be due to incomplete elimination from infested houses, within-village dispersal, or influx from other villages or sylvan environments. To evaluate how these mechanisms contribute to reinfestation, we conducted a time-course analysis of T. dimidiata infestation, abundance and household genetic structure in two nearby villages in Jutiapa, Guatemala; houses in the first village were surveyed, treated with insecticide if infested and then re-surveyed at eight and 22 months following spraying, while the second village served as an untreated control to quantify changes associated with seasonal dispersal. Insects were genotyped at 2–3000 SNP loci for kinship and population genetic analyses. Insecticide application reduced overall infestation and abundance, while the untreated village was stable over time. Nevertheless, within two years 35.5% of treated houses were reinfested and genetic diversity had largely recovered. Insects collected from reinfested houses post-spraying were most closely related to pre-spray collections from the same house, suggesting that infestations had not been fully eliminated. Immigration by unrelated insects was also detected within a year of spraying; when it occurred, dispersal was primarily local from neighboring houses. Similar dispersal patterns were observed following the annual dispersal season in the untreated village, with highinfestation houses serving as sources for neighboring homes. Our findings suggest that the efficacy of pyrethroid application is rapidly diminished by both within-house breeding by survivors and annual cycles of among-house movement. Given these patterns, we conclude that house structural improvements, an integral part of the Ecohealth approach that makes houses refractory to vector colonization and persistence, are critical for longterm reduction of T. dimidiata infestation.
KeywordsVector-borne disease Chagas disease Ecohealth Kinship Spatial autocorrelation Population genetics
Cahan, Sara Helms; Orantes, Lucia C.; Wallin, Kimberly F.; Hanley, John P.; Rizzo, Donna M.; Stevens, Lori; Dorn, Patricia L.; Rodas, Antonieta; Monroy, Carlota. 2019. Residual survival and local dispersal drive reinfestation by Triatoma dimidiata following insecticide application in Guatemala. Infection, Genetics and Evolution. 74: 104000. 16 p. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.meegid.2019.104000.