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In: Impacts, Risks, and Adaptation in the United States: Fourth National Climate Assessment, Volume II Reidmiller, D.R.; Avery, C.W.; Easterling, D.R.; Kunkel, K.E.; Lewis, K.L.M.; Maycock, T.K.; Stewart, B.C. U.S. Global Change Research Program, Washington, DC, USA: 872–940.
The Midwest is home to over 60 million people, and its active economy represents 18% of the U.S. gross domestic product. The region is probably best known for agricultural production. Increases in growingseason temperature in the Midwest are projected to be the largest contributing factor to declines in the productivity of U.S. agriculture. Increases in humidity in spring through mid-century are expected to increase rainfall, which will increase the potential for soil erosion and further reduce planting-season workdays due to waterlogged soil. Forests are a defining characteristic of many landscapes within the Midwest, covering more than 91 million acres. However, a changing climate, including an increased frequency of late-growing-season drought conditions, is worsening the effects of invasive species, insect pests, and plant disease as trees experience periodic moisture stress. Impacts from human activities, such as logging, fire suppression, and agricultural expansion, have lowered the diversity of the Midwest's forests from the pre-Euro-American settlement period. Natural resource managers are taking steps to address these issues by increasing the diversity of trees and introducing species suitable for a changing climate.
Angel, J.; Swanston, C.; Boustead, B.M.; Conlon, K.C. ; Hall, K.C.; Jorns, J.L.; Kunkel, K.E.; Lemos, M.C.; Lofgren, B.; Ontl, T.A.; Posey, J.; Stone, K.; Takle, G.; Todey, D. 2018. Midwest. In: Impacts, Risks, and Adaptation in the United States: Fourth National Climate Assessment, Volume II Reidmiller, D.R.; Avery, C.W.; Easterling, D.R.; Kunkel, K.E.; Lewis, K.L.M.; Maycock, T.K.; Stewart, B.C. U.S. Global Change Research Program, Washington, DC, USA: 872–940. https://doi.org/10.7930/NCA4.2018.CH21