Effects of diapause on Halyomorpha halys (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) cold tolerance
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Diapause and cold tolerance can profoundly affect the distribution and activity of temperate insects. Halyomorpha halys (Stål) (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae), an alien invasive species from Asia, enters a winter dormancy in response to environmental cues. We investigated the nature of this dormancy and its effects on H. halys cold tolerance, as measured by supercooling points, lower lethal temperatures, and overwintering field mortality. Dormancy was induced by rearing individuals in the laboratory or under field conditions. We confirmed H. halys dormancy to be a state of diapause and not quiescence, and the life stage sensitive to diapause-inducing cues is between the second and fifth instar. In the laboratory, supercooling points of diapausing adults reached significantly lower temperatures than nondiapausing adults, but only when given enough time after imaginal ecdysis. Supercooling points of diapausing adults in overwintering microhabitats also decreased over time. Diapause increased adult survival after acute cold exposure in the laboratory and prolonged cold exposure in the field. Following diapause induction in the laboratory, changes to temperature and photoperiod had no significant effect on lower lethal temperatures and changes to photoperiod had no effect on supercooling points. Additionally, induction of diapause in the laboratory did not result in significantly different cold tolerance than natural field induction of diapause. This work demonstrates that H. halys diapause confers greater cold tolerance than a nondiapausing state and likely improves the probability of successful overwintering in some temperate climates. Hence, knowledge of diapause status could be used to refine forecasts of H. halys overwintering field mortality.
Cira, Theresa M.; Koch, Robert L.; Burkness, Eric C.; Hutchison, William D.; Venette, Robert C. 2018. Effects of diapause on Halyomorpha halys (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) cold tolerance. Environmental Entomology. 47(4): 997-1004. https://doi.org/10.1093/ee/nvy064.