Effects of Adult Feeding and Overwintering Conditions on Energy Reserves and Flight Performance of Emerald Ash Borer (Coleoptera: Buprestidae)
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Emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae), an invasive beetle from Asia, spreads through human-mediated movement and active flight. The effects of adult feeding and overwintering conditions on A. planipennis energy reserves (e.g., lipid, glycogen, and sugars) and flight are poorly understood. We conjectured that the potential energetic demands associated with the production of cryoprotectants might affect dispersal capacity and partially explain slower spread of A. planipennis in Minnesota than in the other states. Two studies sought to measure the effects of adult feeding on lipid content and flight capacity. Adult A. planipennis were fed shamel ash, Fraxinus uhdei Wenzig, leaves for 0–20 d after emergence, and half were flown on a custom flight mill for 24 h, before being frozen for comparative lipid analysis with a control group. The second study compared the effects of adult feeding on energy reserves and flight capacity of A. planipennis that were originally from St. Paul, Minnesota but overwintered in infested logs placed in Grand Rapids, Minnesota (low winter temperature, −34°C) or St. Paul, Minnesota (−26.3°C). Live adults consumed foliage at a constant rate, but lipid content (percentage of fresh mass) did not change with increases in feeding or flight. Adult glycogen content declined with flight and increased only slightly with feeding. Overwintering location affected survival rates but not energy reserves or flight capacity. These results suggest that the flight capacity of A. planipennis is largely determined before emergence, with no differences in energy reserves after cryoprotectant investment.
Tussey, Dylan A; Aukema, Brian H; Charvoz, Anthony M; Venette, Robert C. 2018. Effects of Adult Feeding and Overwintering Conditions on Energy Reserves and Flight Performance of Emerald Ash Borer (Coleoptera: Buprestidae). Environmental Entomology. 47(3): 755-763. https://doi.org/10.1093/ee/nvy040.