Simultaneous determination of UV-filters and estrogens in aquatic invertebrates by modified quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged, and safe extraction and liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry
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Journal of Chromatography A
tUltraviolet-filters (UV-filters) and estrogens have attracted increased attention as contaminants of emerging concern (CECs) due to their widespread occurrence in the environment. Most of these CECs are hydrophobic and have the potential to accumulate in aquatic organisms. To date, co-analysis of UV-filters and estrogens has not been reported due, in part, to the complex environmental matrices. Here, a multi-residue method has been developed for simultaneous determination of five UV-filters and three estrogens in tissue from aquatic and marine organisms. The procedure involved a modified Quick, Easy, Cheap, Effective, Rugged, and Safe (QuEChERS) extraction with a novel reverse-solid-phase extraction (reverse-SPE) cleanup in place of dispersive-SPE, followed by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC–MS/MS) analysis. The tissue mass, acetonitrile content, and salt conditions for QuEChERS extraction, along with the reverse-SPE cartridge material and elution conditions, were thoroughly investigated and optimized. Five UV-filters (i.e., 3-(4-methylbenzylidene) camphor, benzophenone-3, ethylhexyl-methoxycinnamate, homosalate, and octocrylene) and three estrogens (i.e., estrone, 17β-estradiol, and17α-ethinylestradiol) were simultaneously analyzed by taking advantage of wrong-way-round ionization in LC–MS/MS. The optimized analytical protocol exhibited good recoveries (>80%) for target compounds and enabled their detection at concentrations as low as 0.2 ng/g in 50 mg tissue samples. The method was applied to determine concentrations of target analytes in four invertebrates (i.e., Orconectes virilis, Procambarus clarkii, Crassostrea virginica, and Ischadium recurvum). All eight target analytes were detected at least once in the tissue samples, with the highest concentration being 399 ng/g of homosalate in O. virilis. These results highlight the ubiquitous bioaccumulation of CECs in aquatic and marine invertebrates.
KeywordsQuEChERS Reverse-solid-phase extraction Wrong-way-round ionization UV-filters Estrogens Invertebrates
He, Ke; Timm, Anne; Blaney, Lee. 2017. Simultaneous determination of UV-filters and estrogens in aquatic invertebrates by modified quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged, and safe extraction and liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. Journal of Chromatography A. 1509: 91-101. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chroma.2017.06.039.