Blends of Pheromones, With and Without Host Plant Volatiles, Can Attract Multiple Species of Cerambycid Beetles Simultaneously
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Journal of Economic Entomology
Pheromone components of cerambycid beetles are often conserved, with a given compound serving as a pheromone component for multiple related species, including species native to different continents. Consequently, a single synthesized compound may attract multiple species to a trap simultaneously. Furthermore, our previous research in east-central Illinois had demonstrated that pheromones of different species can be combined to attract an even greater diversity of species. Here, we describe the results of field bioassays in the northeastern, midwestern, southeastern, south-central, and southwestern United States that assessed attraction of cerambycids to a 'generic' pheromone blend containing six known cerambycid pheromone components, versus the individual components of the blend, and how attraction was influenced by plant volatiles. Nineteen species were attracted in significant numbers, with the pheromone blend attracting about twice as many species as any of the individual components. The blend attracted species of three subfamilies, whereas individual components attracted species within one subfamily. However, some antagonistic interactions between blend components were identified. The plant volatiles ethanol and α-pinene usually enhanced attraction to the blend. Taken together, these experiments suggest that blends of cerambycid pheromones, if selected carefully to minimize inhibitory effects, can be effective for sampling a diversity of species, and that plant volatiles generally enhance attraction. Such generic pheromone blends may serve as an effective and economical method of detecting incursions of exotic, potentially invasive species.
Hanks, L.M.; Mongold-Diers, J.A.; Atkinson, T.H.; Fierke, M.K.; Ginzel, M.D.; Graham, E.E.; Poland, T.M.; Richards, A.B.; Richardson, M.L.; Millar, J.G. 2018. Blends of Pheromones, With and Without Host Plant Volatiles, Can Attract Multiple Species of Cerambycid Beetles Simultaneously. Journal of Economic Entomology. 111(2): 716-724. https://doi.org/10.1093/jee/tox373.