A new mechanism for calcium loss in forest-floor soils
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Nature. 378(9): 162-165.
Calcium is the fifth most abundant element in trees, and is an essential component for wood formation and the maintenance of cell walls. Depletion of Ca from the rooting zone can result in acidification of soil and surface water and possibly growth decline and dieback of red spruce. During the past six decades, concentrations of root-available Ca (exchangeable and acid-extractable forms) in forest-floor soils have decreased in the northeastern United state. Both net forest growth and acid deposition have been put forth as mechanisms that can account for this Ca depletions. Here, however, we present data collected in red spruce forests in the northeastern United States that are inconsistent with either of these mechanisms. We propose that aluminium, mobilized in the mineral soil by acid deposition, is transported into the forest floor in a reactive form that reduces storage of Ca, and thus its availability for root uptake. This results in potential stress to trees and, by increasing the demand for Ca, also decreases neutralization of drainage waters, thereby leading to acidification of lakes and streams.
Lawrence, Gregory B.; David, Mark B.; Shortle, Walter C. 1995. A new mechanism for calcium loss in forest-floor soils. Nature. 378(9): 162-165.