Nonbreeding golden-winged warbler, habitat: status, conservation, and needs
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In: Streby, H.M.; Andersen, D.E.; Buehler, D.A., eds. Golden-winged warbler ecology, conservation, and habitat management. Studies in Avian Biology no. 49. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press: 29-38. [chapter 2].
Anecdotal reports and more recent quantitative findings suggest Golden-winged Warblers (Vermivora chrysoptera) are most abundant in midelevation moist forests of Central America during the nonbreeding season. The species appears to be tolerant of moderate levels of disturbance, inhabiting both primary and secondary forest; however, occupation of agricultural cover types such as shade coffee may be contingent on the presence of adjacent forest. Trends in deforestation in Latin America offer discouraging prospects for the future of habitat for Goldenwinged Warblers in the region in the short term. Nevertheless, recent innovations in agroforestry practices offer market-based tools for restoring and maintaining forest for nonbreeding warblers. One example is hybrid solar-biomass coffee driers that eliminate the use of fuelwood for drying coffee and lower the costs of coffee drying by over 80%. Currently, the equivalent of 6,500 ha of forest is harvested annually in Latin America to fuel coffee driers. Another example is Integrated Open Canopy (IOC) coffee, where coffee is grown with sparse or no shade adjacent to forest patches of equivalent or greater size. In addition to promoting the conservation of forest habitat required by Golden-winged Warblers and other species, IOC increases income to farmers by increasing yields. Increased income to farmers is important because alternative agroforestry systems provide a market-based incentive for forest conservation. Future work will be directed at implementing these market-based forest conservation strategies over large areas using co-management agreements as a framework for enhancing communication, cooperation, and policy to decrease rural poverty and the pressure on forest resources for the benefit of both humans and birds alike.
Keywordsagroforestry; coffee; co-management; market-based; renewable energy; Vermivora chrysoptera
King, David I.; Chandler, Richard B.; Smalling, Curtis; Trubey, Richard; Raudales, Raul; Will, Tom. 2016. Nonbreeding golden-winged warbler, habitat: status, conservation, and needs. In: Streby, H.M.; Andersen, D.E.; Buehler, D.A., eds. Golden-winged warbler ecology, conservation, and habitat management. Studies in Avian Biology no. 49. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press: 29-38. [chapter 2].