Pest risk assessment of the importation into the United States of unprocessed Pinus logs and chips from Australia
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FHTET (Series) 2006-06. [Washington, D.C.] : U.S. Dept. of Agriculture, Forest Service, Forest Health Protection, Forest Health Technology Enterprise Team, 2006: xii, 159 pages.
The unmitigated pest risk potential for the importation of unprocessed logs and chips of species of Pinus (Pinus radiata, P. elliottii Engelm. var. elliottii, P. taeda L., and P. caribaea var. hondurensis, principally) from Australia into the United States was assessed by estimating the likelihood and consequences of introduction of representative insects and pathogens of concern. Eleven individual pest risk assessments were prepared, nine dealing with insects and two with pathogens. The selected organisms were representative examples of insects and pathogens found on foliage, on the bark, in the bark, and in the wood of Pinus. Among the insects and pathogens assessed for logs as the commodity, high risk potentials were assigned to two introduced European bark beetles (Hylurgus ligniperda and Hylastes ater), the exotic bark anobiid (Ernobius mollis), ambrosia beetles (Platypus subgranosus, Amasa truncatus; Xyleborus perforans), an introduced wood wasp (Sirex noctilio), dampwood termite (Porotermes adamsoni), giant termite (Mastotermes darwiniensis), drywood termites (Neotermes insularis; Kalotermes rufi notum, K. banksiae; Ceratokalotermes spoliator; Glyptotermes tuberculatus; Bifi ditermes condonensis; Cryptotermes primus, C. brevis, C. domesticus, C. dudleyi, C. cynocephalus), and subterranean termites (Schedorhinotermes intermedius intermedius, S. i. actuosus, S. i. breinli, S. i. seclusus, S. reticulatus; Heterotermes ferox, H. paradoxus; Coptotermes acinaciformis, C. frenchi, C. lacteus, C. raffrayi; Microcerotermes boreus, M. distinctus, M. implicadus, M. nervosus, M. turneri; Nasutitermes exitiosis). A moderate pest risk potential was assigned to pine loopers (Chlenias spp.), endemic weevils (Aesiotes spp.), Sphaeropsis sapinea, and the Armillaria root rot fungi (Armillaria hinnulea, A. luteobubalina, A. novae-zealandiae, and A. pallidula). When chips were considered as the commodity, the risk potentials dropped from high to moderate for the two bark beetles and the ambrosia beetles and dropped from high to low for the Sirex woodwasp and the dampwood, giant, drywood, and subterranean termites. The risk potentials for the Diplodia shoot blight pathogen and the Armillaria root rot fungi dropped from moderate to low for the chip commodity. For those organisms of concern that are associated with logs and chips of Australian Pinus, specifi c phytosanitary measures may be required to ensure the quarantine safety of proposed importations.
KeywordsPest risk assessment Pinus pine Australia log importation chip importation nonindigenous pests pest control wood chips diseases and pests Australia United States imports timber lumber trade environmental aspects
Kliejunas, John T; Burdsall, Harold H.; DeNitto, Gregg A.; Eglitis, Andris; Haugen, Dennis A.; Haverty, Michael I.; Micales-Glaeser, Jessie A. 2006. Pest risk assessment of the importation into the United States of unprocessed Pinus logs and chips from Australia. FHTET (Series) 2006-06. [Washington, D.C.] : U.S. Dept. of Agriculture, Forest Service, Forest Health Protection, Forest Health Technology Enterprise Team, 2006: xii, 159 pages.