Responses of legumes and grasses to non-, moderate, and dense shade in Missouri, USA. I. Forage yield and its species-level plasticity
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Annual screenings of forage grasses and legumes for shade tolerance were conducted from 1996 to 2001 in the outdoor Shade Tolerance Screening Laboratory at the Horticulture and Agroforestry Research Center, University of Missouri. Forty-three forages were grown under non-shade (100% of full sunlight), moderate shade (45%), and dense shade (20%) without competition for water and nutrients. Annual forage yield (g pot-1) was equal to or higher under moderate shade for all 43 forages and under dense shade for 31 forages than the non-shade control. Relative distance plasticity index (RDPI), a measure of a species' adaptability to different environments, ranged from 0.104 to 0.567. Cool season grasses had the lowest RDPI (0.183), followed by warm season grasses (0.252), warm season legumes (0.274), and cool season legumes (0.314), indicating grasses tend to be more shade tolerant than legumes in terms of forage yield. Overall, most grass and legume forages have the potential to produce equivalent or higher yields in agroforestry practices featuring light to moderate shade than forages in open pastures when competition from tree roots is minimized.
KeywordsShade tolerance Relative distance plasticity index Annual biomass Warm-season forages C4 grasses
Pang, Kejia; Van Sambeek, J. W.; Navarrete-Tindall, Nadia E.; Lin, Chung-Ho; Jose, Shibu; Garrett, H.E. 2017. Responses of legumes and grasses to non-, moderate, and dense shade in Missouri, USA. I. Forage yield and its species-level plasticity. Agroforestry Systems. 14 p. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10457-017-0067-8