Monitoring the establishment and flight phenology of parasitoids of emerald ash borer (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) in Michigan by using sentinel eggs and larvae
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Florida Entomologist. 99(4): 667-672.
The emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae), is an important invasive pest of ash (Fraxinus) trees in North America. Two larval parasitoid species, Tetrastichus planipennisi Yang (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) and Spathius agrili Yang (Hymenoptera: Braconidae), and 1 egg parasitoid species, Oobius agrili Zhang and Huang (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae), were introduced into the United States in 2007 as part of a classical biological control program. We conducted field studies to assess the flight phenology of introduced and native parasitoids of emerald ash borer in central Michigan from 2011 to 2013 by using sentinel logs. Parasitism rates of sentinel A. planipennis eggs by O. agrili fluctuated throughout the season from 0 to 22% in 2011 and 0 to 6% in 2012. Flight phenology of O. agrili adults varied between years, and discrete generations were not apparent. Rather, O. agrili adults were generally continually present over a 3 mo period each year. Parasitism rates of sentinel A. planipennis larvae by T. planipennisi and the North American native Atanycolus spp. (Hymenoptera: Braconidae), respectively, ranged from 0 to 5% and 33 to 77% in 2011, from 0 to 69% and 0 to 27% in 2012, and from 0 to 53% and 0 to 46% in 2013. Phenology of adult flight of both T. planipennisi and Atanycolus spp. was inconsistent between years. Development of nondestructive methods to determine when stages of A. planipennis suitable for parasitism are present in combination with the use of sentinel logs to observe parasitoid phenology as described here will enhance the ability to evaluate the impacts of parasitoids on emerald ash borer.
Abell, Kristopher J.; Bauer, Leah S.; Miller, Deborah L.; Duan, Jian J.; Van Driesche, Roy G. 2016. Monitoring the establishment and flight phenology of parasitoids of emerald ash borer (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) in Michigan by using sentinel eggs and larvae. Florida Entomologist. 99(4): 667-672. https://doi.org/10.1653/024.099.0413.