Oak wilt and oak decline in the upper midwest USA
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In: Oszako, T.; Delatour, C., eds. Recent Advances on Oak Health in Europe. Forest Institute: Warsaw, Poland: 139-145
Oaks are a significant component of the hardwood forests of the Upper Midwest USA. Numerous species occur over vast areas in the region and are highly valued for a variety of reasons. Oak wilt caused by C. fagacearum, and oak decline associated with several factors are the major causes of the species, deterioration and death in the region. Urbanization and wind damage associated with spring storms have spurred the spread of oak wilt as well as contributed to general oak decline. Concern exists that additional increases in oak wilt may occur if the European oak bark beetle should become established in the eastern USA. Although sometimes difficult, distinguishing between oak wilt and oak decline is necessary for the appropriate application of control measures.
Juzwik, Jennifer; Schmidt, Thomas L. 2000. Oak wilt and oak decline in the upper midwest USA. In: Oszako, T.; Delatour, C., eds. Recent Advances on Oak Health in Europe. Forest Institute: Warsaw, Poland: 139-145