Overland transmission of Ceratocystis fagacearum: extending our understanding
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In: Ash, Cynthia L., ed. Shade Tree Wilt Diseases: Proceedings from Wilt Diseases of Shade Trees: A National Conference. St. Paul, MN: APS Press: 83-92
Oak wilt is an important disease of oaks (Quercus spp.) in 22 states of the eastern United States. The causal fungus, Ceratocystis fagacearum J. Hunt, causes mortality of thousands of native oaks annually across the upper midwestern states. The pathogen is transmitted from diseased to healthy trees below ground via functional root connections and above ground via insect vectors. Spread of the disease across the landscape is considered slow and erratic, especially when compared with that of introduced exotic diseases of trees such as Dutch elm disease and chestnut blight. The inefficient insect vector relationship in the disease cycle is cited as the reason that oak wilt has not had the major impact that Dutch elm disease has had in the United States (25). Overland transmission of the pathogen via insect vectors is less effective, occurs less frequently, and is less predictable than local root graft spread. Nonetheless, insect transmission is significant as the means by which new infection centers are initiated either within the same oak stand or in adjacent to more distant stands.
Juzwik, Jennifer 1999. Overland transmission of Ceratocystis fagacearum: extending our understanding. In: Ash, Cynthia L., ed. Shade Tree Wilt Diseases: Proceedings from Wilt Diseases of Shade Trees: A National Conference. St. Paul, MN: APS Press: 83-92