Somatic embryogenesis from immature fruit of Juglans cinerea
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In: Jain, S.M.; Gupta, P.K.; Newton, R.J., eds. Somatic embryogenesis in woody plants. Dordrecht, Netherlands: Kluwer: 415-429.
Butternut (Juglans cinerea L.) (Fig. 1a), also known as white walnut or oilnut, is a hardwood species in the family Juglandaceae, section Trachycaryon (Manning, 1978), or more appropriately, section Cardiocaryon (Fjellstrom & Parfitt, 1994). This hardwood species is valued for its wood and edible nuts. Native to North America from New Brunswick to Georgia, and west to Minnesota and Arkansas (Fig. 1b), butternut is not an abundant species and is seldom found in pure stands, but rather in association with several other tree species such as cherry, basswood, oak, walnut, ash, maple, elm, and hemlock (Rink, 1990). A relatively slow-growing tree, butternut attains an average height of 12-18 m and grows best on moist, rich, deep soils of bottom lands, although it also grows quite well in drier, rocky soils (Dirr 1990). Quality butternut wood commands a high market price for many uses including furniture, veneer, cabinets, paneling, and fine woodworking, and the nut is an important food source for wildlife. Historically, the inner bark of butternut and its nut husks were used to yield an orange or yellow dye for Confederate troop uniforms, and the inner bark has mild cathartic properties (Dirr, 1990; Peattie, 1950). Native Americans extracted oil from crushed butternuts by boiling them in water, and the sap of butternut has been used to make syrup (Goodell, 1984). There has been limited selection of butternuts for superior genotypes, other than for nut quality and production (Goodell, 1984; McDaniel, 1981; Milikan & Stefan, 1989; Milikan et aL, 1990).
Pijut, Paula M. 1999. Somatic embryogenesis from immature fruit of Juglans cinerea. In: Jain, S.M.; Gupta, P.K.; Newton, R.J., eds. Somatic embryogenesis in woody plants. Dordrecht, Netherlands: Kluwer: 415-429.