Early northern hardwood silvicultural research at the Dukes Experimental Forest, Michigan
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Journal of Forestry. 113(2): 258-261.
Commercial lumber production in the Lake States, which began in the early 1800s with eastern white pine (Pinus strobus L.), shifted to hardwoods in the late 1800s (Whitney 1994). Much of the hardwood forest was rapidly cut over; as a consequence, mill capacity exceeded available stumpage by the 1920s (Eyre and Zillgitt 1953). The forest industry recognized the need for sustained-yield practices, but faced numerous financial and managerial problems and most landowners continued to liquidate their timber.
Kenefic, Laura S.; Kern, Christel C. 2015. Early northern hardwood silvicultural research at the Dukes Experimental Forest, Michigan. Journal of Forestry. 113(2): 258-261. https://doi.org/10.5849/jof.14-154 .