Interference by weeds and deer with Allegheny hardwood reproduction
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Canadian Journal of Forest Research. 13: 61-69.
Deer browsing and interference from forest weeds, particularly hayscented fem (Dennstaedtia punctilobula (Michx.) Moore), New York fern (Thelypteris noveboracensis L.), and short husk grass (Brachyelytrnm erectum Schreb.), influence the establishment of Allegheny hardwood reproduction. We determined the independent interference by deer and weeds after a seed cut and a removal cut in a two-cut shelterwood sequence. Weeds, particularly the ferns, caused significant interference with germination, survival, and growth of desirable species following both cuttings. Deer browsing had no direct effect on desirable species because they did not grow enough to emerge from the herbaceous cover. Deer browsing did affect growth of Rubus, yellow and black birch (Betula alleghaniensis Britt, and Betula lenta L.), and pin cherry (Prunus pensylvanica L.) that grew above the herbaceous cover. Browsing of Rubus may be a serious problem in some stands because substantial reduction in fem and grass coverage occurred as the Rubus developed.
Horsley, Stephen B.; Marquis, David A. 1983. Interference by weeds and deer with Allegheny hardwood reproduction. Canadian Journal of Forest Research. 13: 61-69.