Scymnus (Neopullus) lady beetles from China
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In: Onken, B.; Reardon, R. eds. Implementation and status of biological control of the hemlock woolly adelgid. FHTET-2011-04. Morgantown, WV: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service Forest Health Technology Enterprise Team: 53-76. Chapter 5.
In 1995, we found our first Scymnus (Neopullus) lady beetle in China (Neopullus is a subgenus of Scymnus, the largest genus in the family Coccinellidae). At that time there were just a few known species in the subgenus and very little was known of their biology. By the end of the project, 14 years later, we had doubled the number of known Scymnus (Neopullus) species and thoroughly studied the biology of the three species that seemed the most promising candidates for biological control of Adelges tsugae Annand, the hemlock woolly adelgid (HWA) in the eastern United States. This discussion of the research on the three Scymnus (Neopullus) species is a good example of the process of classical biological control(1) the discovery of potential agents and determination of their biology and host range in their indigenous environment; (2) importation and further study in quarantine of their biology and potential host range in the areas targeted for their release; (3) using sleeve cages to evaluate the response of natural enemies to their new environment and their impact on the pest; and (4) the free release of the biological control agents into the environment.
Montgomery, Michael E.; Keena, Melody A. 2011. Scymnus (Neopullus) lady beetles from China. In: Onken, B.; Reardon, R. eds. Implementation and status of biological control of the hemlock woolly adelgid. FHTET-2011-04. Morgantown, WV: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service Forest Health Technology Enterprise Team: 53-76. Chapter 5.