Publication Details

Understanding Federal regulations as guidelines for classical biological control programs

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Year Published

2011

Publication

In: Onken, B.; Reardon, R. eds. Implementation and status of biological control of the hemlock woolly adelgid. FHTET-2011-04. Morgantown, WV: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service Forest Health Technology Enterprise Team: 25-40. Chapter 3.

Abstract

This chapter reviews the legislation and rules that provide the foundation for federal regulation of the introduction of natural enemies of insects as biological control agents. It also outlines the steps for complying with regulatory requirements, using biological control of Adelges tsugae Annand, the hemlock woolly adelgid (HWA), as an example. The program to establish biological control agents for HWA in eastern North America dates from 1993 to present and involves importation from other continents, from other countries in the North American continent, as well as the interstate movement of biological control agents. Thus, biological control of HWA provides examples of regulation under old and new federal regulations and rules for foreign importation and interstate movement.

Citation

Montgomery, Michael E. 2011. Understanding Federal regulations as guidelines for classical biological control programs. In: Onken, B.; Reardon, R. eds. Implementation and status of biological control of the hemlock woolly adelgid. FHTET-2011-04. Morgantown, WV: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service Forest Health Technology Enterprise Team: 25-40. Chapter 3.

Last updated on: May 6, 2015