An antithetic variate to facilitate upper-stem height measurements for critical height sampling with importance sampling
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Canadian Journal of Forest Research. 43(12): 1151-1161.
Critical height sampling (CHS) estimates cubic volume per unit area by multiplying the sum of critical heights measured on trees tallied in a horizontal point sample (HPS) by the HPS basal area factor. One of the barriers to practical application of CHS is the fact that trees near the field location of the point-sampling sample point have critical heights that occur quite high on the stem, making them difficult to view from the sample point. To surmount this difficulty, use of the "antithetic variate" associated with the critical height together with importance sampling from the cylindrical shells integral is proposed. This antithetic variate will be u = (1 - b/B), where b is the cross-sectional area at "borderline" condition and B is the tree's basal area. The cross-sectional area at borderline condition b can be determined with knowledge of the HPS gauge angle by measuring the distance to the sample tree. When the antithetic variate u is used in importance sampling, the upper-stem measurement will be low on tree stems close to the sample point and high on tree stems distant from the sample point, enhancing visibility and ease of measurement from the sample point. Computer simulations compared HPS, CHS, CHS with importance sampling (ICHS), ICHS and an antithetic variate (AICHS), and CHS with paired antithetic varariates (PAICHS) and found that HPS, ICHS, AICHS, and PAICHS were very nearly equally precise and were more precise than CHS. These results are favorable to AICHS, since it should require less time than either PAICHS or ICHS and is not subject to individual-tree volume equation bias.
Lynch, Thomas B.; Gove, Jeffrey H. 2013. An antithetic variate to facilitate upper-stem height measurements for critical height sampling with importance sampling. Canadian Journal of Forest Research. 43(12): 1151-1161. https://doi.org/10.1139/cjfr-2013-0279.