FireStem2D A two-dimensional heat transfer model for simulating tree stem injury in fires
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PLoS One. 8(7): e70110. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0070110
FireStem2D, a software tool for predicting tree stem heating and injury in forest fires, is a physically-based, two-dimensional model of stem thermodynamics that results from heating at the bark surface. It builds on an earlier one-dimensional model (FireStem) and provides improved capabilities for predicting fire-induced mortality and injury before a fire occurs by resolving stem moisture loss, temperatures through the stem, degree of bark charring, and necrotic depth around the stem. We present the results of numerical parameterization and model evaluation experiments for FireStem2D that simulate laboratory stem-heating experiments of 52 tree sections from 25 trees. We also conducted a set of virtual sensitivity analysis experiments to test the effects of unevenness of heating around the stem and with aboveground height using data from two studies: a low-intensity surface fire and a more intense crown fire. The model allows for improved understanding and prediction of the effects of wildland fire on injury and mortality of trees of different species and sizes.
Chatziefstratiou, Efthalia K.; Bohrer, Gil; Bova, Anthony S.; Subramanian, Ravishankar; Frasson, Renato P.M.; Scherzer, Amy; Butler, Bret W.; Dickinson, Matthew B. 2013. FireStem2D A two-dimensional heat transfer model for simulating tree stem injury in fires. PLoS One. 8(7): e70110. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0070110 https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0070110.