The relationship between the emerald ash borer (Agrilus planipennis) and ash (Fraxinus spp.) tree decline: Using visual canopy condition assessments and leaf isotope measurements to assess pest damage
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Forest Ecology and Management. 303: 143-147.
Ash trees (Fraxinus spp.) in North America are being severely impacted by the invasive emerald ash borer (Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire) which was inadvertently introduced to the US in the 1990s from Asia. The emerald ash borer (EAB) is a phloem boring beetle which relies exclusively on ash trees to complete its life cycle. Larvae feed in the cambial tissue forming serpentine galleries that may girdle the tree, causing mortality in as little as two years. Although larval feeding is thought to be the cause of rapid tree mortality, the relationship between tree-level water stress and EAB larval activity has never been quantified. Identifying symptoms of an emerald ash borer outbreak at an early stage can facilitate informed management decisions. Although a user-friendly system of ash canopy condition rating has been used extensively to study EAB impacts, the mechanistic relationship between canopy ratings and EAB larval activity has not been quantified.
Flower, Charles E.; Knight, Kathleen S.; Rebbeck, Joanne; Gonzalez-Meler, Miquel A. 2013. The relationship between the emerald ash borer (Agrilus planipennis) and ash (Fraxinus spp.) tree decline: Using visual canopy condition assessments and leaf isotope measurements to assess pest damage. Forest Ecology and Management. 303: 143-147. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foreco.2013.04.017.