Effects of temperature and photoperiod on the aestivo-hibernal egg diapause of Scymnus camptodromus (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae)
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Environmental Entomology. 41(6): 1662-1671.
Three sequential studies were conducted on the interacting effects of exposure to low (5°C) temperature for 0, 7, 28, 56, or 84 d followed by incubation at 10, 15, or 20°C on the egg diapause of Scymnus (Neopullus) camptodromus Yu and Liu (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae). This beetle was imported from China as a potential biological control agent for hemlock woolly adelgid, Adelges tsugae (Annand) (Hemiptera: Adelgidae). Very few eggs laid and held at a constant 15 or 20°C showed any indication of development. Only eggs exposed to temperature combinations of 5 and 10°C had >50% hatch. Highest percent hatch and fastest development occurred when eggs were held at 5°C for 56 or 84 d followed by holding at 10°C. A model estimated the lower threshold for postdiapause development to be 2°C. The effect of temperature on egg hatch was similar at photoperiods of 12:12 and 16:8 (L:D) h, suggesting egg development is not governed by photoperiod or light exposure. Collectively these data indicate that S. camptodromus eggs laid in the spring and summer go through an aestivo-hibernal diapause that is maintained by warm temperatures and that development resumes when temperatures drop, in parallel with the development of hemlock woolly adelgid. This concurrent development allows S. camptodromus eggs to hatch while hemlock woolly adelgid is laying eggs. This synchrony between the development of S. camptodromus eggs and the overwintering adelgid suggest this beetle may be a good candidate for the biological control of the hemlock woolly adelgid.
Keena, Melody A.; Trotter III, R. Talbot; Cheah, Carole; Montgomery, Michael E. 2012. Effects of temperature and photoperiod on the aestivo-hibernal egg diapause of Scymnus camptodromus (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae). Environmental Entomology. 41(6): 1662-1671.