Agrilus auroguttatus exit hole distributions on Quercus agrifolia boles and a sampling method to estimate their density on individual trees
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The Canadian Entomologist. 144: 1-12.
In recent decades, invasive phloem and wood borers have become important pests in North America. To aid tree sampling and survey efforts for the newly introduced goldspotted oak borer, Agrilus auroguttatus Schaeffer (Coleoptera: Buprestidae), we examined spatial patterns of exit holes on the boles (trunks) of 58 coast live oak, Quercus agrifolia Née (Fagaceae), trees at five sites in San Diego County, southern California, United States of America. Agrilus auroguttatus exit hole densities were greater at the root collar than at mid-boles (6.1m above ground). Dispersion patterns of exit holes on lower boles (r1.52 m) were random for trees with low exit hole densities and aggregated for trees with high exit hole densities. The mean exit hole density measured from three randomly chosen quadrats (0.09m2) provided a statistically reliable estimate of the true mean exit hole density on the lower bole, with, 25% error from the true mean. For future sampling and survey efforts in southern California oak forests and woodlands, exit hole counts within a 0.09m2 quadrat could be made at any three locations on lower Q. agrifolia boles to accurately estimate A. auroguttatus exit hole densities at the individual tree level.
Haavik, Laurel J.; Coleman, Tom W.; Flint, Mary Louise; Venette, Robert C.; Seybold, Steven J. 2012. Agrilus auroguttatus exit hole distributions on Quercus agrifolia boles and a sampling method to estimate their density on individual trees. The Canadian Entomologist. 144:1-12. https://doi.org/10.4039/tce.2012.68.