Artificial regeneration of major oak (Quercus) species in the eastern United States - a review of the literature
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Forest Science. 54(1): 77-106.
Although natural regeneration is often the best method for establishing new oak (Quercus spp.) stands, there are increasingly more situations in which high potential for oak regeneration failure dictates the use of artificial regeneration including direct seeding and planting seedlings. Additionally, afforestation planting programs frequently incorporate oak species. Artificial regeneration of oak stands is challenging for numerous reasons. In this article we synthesize the current state of knowledge regarding growing and planting the major oak species in the eastern United States, point out critical research gaps, and provide some general growing, planting, and stand tending guidelines and recommendations. Adequate site preparation, careful planting of healthy, genetically adapted seed or seedlings of high morphological and physiological quality, and subsequent control of competing vegetation and browse damage are necessary actions to assure regeneration success.
Keywordsreforestation afforestation planting seedlings competition control direct seeding regeneration success Quercus oak silviculture animal damage
Dey, Daniel C.; Jacobs, Douglass; McNabb, Ken; Miller, Gary W.; Baldwin, V.; Foster, G. 2008. Artificial regeneration of major oak (Quercus) species in the eastern United States - a review of the literature. Forest Science. 54(1): 77-106.