Composition, Structure, and Tree Reproduction at White Pine Hollow, Iowa, USA: A Remnant Old-Growth Forest
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Natural Areas Journal 23(3):238-246
A relict population of eastern white pine (Pinus strobus L.) occurs at White Pine Hollow State Preserve in northeastern Iowa, USA. White pine was not self-replacing in our study plots here, and without disturbances that alter the successional trend the species will eventually disappear from the flat to rolling uplands where most pines currently occur. Some natural pine reproduction occurs on steep slopes. Live tree density was 967 trees ha-1, and mean basal area was 33 m2 ha-1. Basal area was significantly greater on plots with white pine. Without recruitment of of pine into the overstory, these plots will experience declines in basal area. The diameter distribution of all live trees had a negative exponential shape. However, the distribution for white pine, white oak (Quercus alba L.), and northern red oak (Quercus rubra L.) were unimodal, with no or few trees in the smaller size classes. Compared to a previous study at White Pine Hollow, there has been a dramatic decrease in the density of white pine and white oak trees, and an increase in sugar maple (Acer Saccharum Marsh.). Mean density of standing dead trees was 95 trees ha-1 with basal area 4 m2 ha-1. Overall, the number of standing dead trees by diameter class was 10% that of live trees, but this relationship did not hold true for individual species. For white pine and the oaks, the ratio of dead to live trees was much greater than average for all species combined. The mean volume of downed wood was 66 m2 ha-1.
Roovers, Lynn M.; Shifley, Stephen R. 2003. Composition, Structure, and Tree Reproduction at White Pine Hollow, Iowa, USA: A Remnant Old-Growth Forest. Natural Areas Journal 23(3):238-246