Emerald ash borer biological control release and recovery guidelines
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U.S. Department of Agriculture, Animal Plant Health Inspection Service, Forest Service Northern Research Station, and Agricultural Research Service. 76 p.
Emerald ash borer (EAB), a beetle from Asia that feeds on ash trees, was discovered as the cause of extensive ash mortality in southeast Michigan and adjacent areas of Canada in 2002. It is thought that this destructive pest was introduced in the early 1990's in infested solid wood packing material originating in Asia. Shortly after EAB was discovered in North America, federal and state regulatory agencies placed infested counties under quarantine and eradication activities were initiated. Due to the magnitude of the EAB infestation in North America, the potential for natural and artificial dispersal of EAB, limited EAB detection and control methods, and high costs, program objectives shifted away from eradication to containment and management of the pest. By February 2011, EAB infestations were known in fifteen states (Indiana, Illinois, Kentucky, Maryland, Michigan, Minnesota, Missouri, New York, Ohio, Pennsylvania, Virginia, West Virginia, Wisconsin, Iowa, and Tennessee) and two Canadian provinces (Ontario and Quebec). At present, the most promising long-term approach for reducing EAB populations and conserving ash in forested areas of North America is biological control.
Gould, Juli S.; Bauer, Leah S.; Lelito, Jonathan; Duan, Jian. 2012. Emerald ash borer biological control release and recovery guidelines. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Animal Plant Health Inspection Service, Forest Service Northern Research Station, and Agricultural Research Service. 76 p.