Tomicus piniperda (Coleoptera: Scolytidae) Initial Flight and Shoot
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Journal of Economic Entomology 95(6):1195-1204
The exotic pine shoot beetle, Tomicus piniperda (L.) (Coleoptera: Scolytidae), established in the north central and northeastern United States (U.S.) and adjacent regions in Canada, is regulated by a federal quarantine that restricts movement of pine material during specific times of the year based on the beetle's life history. Although climatic variation occurs across T. piniperda's range, a single set of dates is used for timing the movement of pine logs. We monitored T. piniperda spring flight, fall shoot departure, and air and internal tree temperatures at three sites along a 300-km north-south gradient in Michigan and Indiana. We also estimated dates for initial spring flight (12ºC threshold) and fall shoot departure (0ºC threshold) across an 850-km gradient using historical temperature records (1901 to 1999). Average daily temperatures in fall 1997 (8 October to 12 December) and spring 1998 (20 February to 21 April) were 1.8 to 2.4ºC colder, respectively, at the northern field site than at the southern field site. Fall shoot departure began at approximately the same time (day 289 to 290) at all three field sites, but complete shoot departure was extended by 3 wk at the southern site (day 336) compared with the northern site (day 317). T. piniperda adults were first captured in funnel traps on calendar day 86 at the northern site and on day 59 at the central and southern field sites. Peak flight occurred at approximately the same time (day 86) at all three sites. Within-shoot temperatures were very similar to air temperatures in the fall and aboveground inside-bark temperatures were similar to air temperatures in the spring. Average predicted dates based on historical temperature records varied by 31 d for initial shoot departure and 84 d for initial spring flight between northern Michigan and southern Indiana. Because considerable variation can occur in T. piniperda behavior across a broad geographic range, dates specified in the U.S. Federal quarantine should be adjusted according to local temperatures.
Poland, Therese M.; Haack, Robert A.; Petrice, Toby R. 2002. Tomicus piniperda (Coleoptera: Scolytidae) Initial Flight and Shoot. Journal of Economic Entomology 95(6):1195-1204