Red spruce (Picea rubens Sarg.) cold hardiness and freezing injury susceptibility. Chapter 18
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In: Bigras, F.; Columbo, S.J., eds. Conifer cold hardiness. Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht, The Netherlands: 495-529.
To survive subfreezing winter temperatmes, perennial plant species have evolved tissue-specific mechanisms to undergo changes in freezing tolerance that parallel seasonal variations in climate. As such, most northern temperate tree species, including conifers, are adapted to the habitat and climatic conditions within their natural ranges and suffer little or no freezing injury under normally occurring environmental conditions. In fact, the maximum depth of cold hardiness in most well-adapted tree species is substantially greater than minimum temperatures encountered naturally, and cold hardening and oebardening are typically coordinated with environmental conditions so that plants are not injured by early or late season frosts or subfreezing temperatures that follow temporary winter thaws. Indeed, most examples of freezing or 'winter injury' in northern temperate woody plants involve species or provenances that are planted off-site. Furthermore, most cases of freezing injury are associated with improper timing or an insufficient rate of cold acclimation during autumn, resulting in injury at temperatures that a species could probably withstand at a more advanced stage of cold hardiness. Based on our current understanding of developmental cold hardiness and n:eezing injury, it appears that red spruce (Picea rubens Sarg.) violates each of the aforementioned premises about cold hardiness.
Keywordsred spruce freezing injury cold hardiness sugars water relations dehardening acid deposition membrane-associated calcium
DeHayes, Donald H.; Schaberg, Paul G.; Strimbeck, G.Richard. 2001. Red spruce (Picea rubens Sarg.) cold hardiness and freezing injury susceptibility Chapter 18. In: Bigras, F.; Columbo, S.J., eds. Conifer cold hardiness. Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht, The Netherlands: 495-529.