Patterns of Wildlife Value Orientations
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Human Dimensions of Wildlife 7:147-162
Public value orientations toward wildlife may be growing less utilitarian and more protectionist. To better understand one aspect of this trend, we investigated patterns of wildlife value orientations within families. Using a mail survey, we sampled Pennsylvania and Colorado hunting license holders 50 or older; obtaining a 54% response rate (n = 599). Males (94% of sample) reported their own basic beliefs about wildlife and perceptions of the basic beliefs of their mothers, fathers, spouses, oldest sons, and oldest daughters. A majority approved of wildlife use and hunting but not wildlife rights. Males were least likely to perceive differences between their own beliefs and those of their fathers and sons and most likely to perceive differences between their own beliefs and those of their daughters. Respondents who perceived most differences were likely to report moderate utilitarian value orientations and to have grown up in urban areas, lived in more than one state, and attended college. Results link values shifts to three current trends: urbanization, residential mobility, and increasing education. To the extent that wildlife value orientations are changing, wildlife management agencies must adapt to that change. Future studies should measure beliefs of multiple family members and use both quantitative and qualitative approaches to understanding values transmission.
Zinn, Harry C.; Manfredo, Michael J.; Barro, Susan C. 2002. Patterns of Wildlife Value Orientations. Human Dimensions of Wildlife 7:147-162