Free-air exposure systems to scale up ozone research to mature trees
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Plant Biology. 9: 181-190.
Because seedlings and mature trees do not necessarily respond similarly to O3 stress, it is critically important that exposure systems be developed that allow exposure of seedlings through to mature trees. Here we describe three different O3 Free-Air Exposure Systems that have been used successfully for exposure at all growth stages. These systems of spatially uniform O3 release have been shown to provide reliable O3 exposure with minimal, if any, impact on the microclimate. This methodology offers a welcome alternative to chamber studies which had severe space constraints precluding stand or community- level studies and substantial chamber effects on the microclimate and, hence physiological tree performance.
Keywordsfree-air; greenhouse gases; ozone; mature trees; sugar maple (Acer saccharum); paper birch (Betula papyrifera); trembling aspen (Populus tremuloides); European beech (Fagus sylvatica); Norway spruce (Picea abies); European white birch (Betula pendula)
Karnosky,D. F.; Werner, H.; Holopainen, Percy T.; Oksanen, K.; Oksanen, T.E.; Heerdt, C.; Fabian, P.; Nagy, J.; Heilman, W.; Cox, R.; Nelson, N.; Matyssek, R. 2007. Free-air exposure systems to scale up ozone research to mature trees. Plant Biology. 9: 181-190.