Going to extremes: low temperature tolerance and acclimation in temperate and boreal conifers
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In: Gusta L.; Wisniewski, M.; Tanino, K., eds. Plant cold hardiness: from the laboratory to the field. CAB International: 226-239.
Despite global warming, temperatures in the continental interiors of Canada and Siberia can still fall below -60°C and can remain below -40°C for weeks at a time. These extreme temperatures occur not in barren tundra regions, but taiga forests dominated by species of spruce (Picea), fir (Abies), pine (Pinus) and larch (Larix). While other plant and animal species may receive some protection from snow cover, the above-ground parts of trees, including the foliage of evergreen trees, must survive the full brunt of the winter environment.
Strimbeck, G.R.; Schaberg, P.G. 2009. Going to extremes: low temperature tolerance and acclimation in temperate and boreal conifers. In: Gusta L.; Wisniewski, M.; Tanino, K., eds. Plant cold hardiness: from the laboratory to the field. Wallingford, Oxfordshire, UK: CABI Publishing: 226-239.