Molecular phylogenetics of the gomphoid-phalloid fungi with an establishment of the new subclass Phallomycetidae and two new orders
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Mycologia. 98(6): 949-959.
Molecular phylogenetic analyses for the gomphoid-phalloid fungi were conducted based on the five gene dataset with extensive taxon sampling. The monophyly of the gomphoid-phalloid clade was strongly supported, and four well supported major subclades were recognized. Three of the four subclades were represented entirely by gastroid taxa, and only Gomphales contained both gastroid and nongastroid taxa. While the gastroid morphology is derived from epigeous, nongastroid taxa in Gomphales, the topology of Phallales indicated that truffle-like form is an ancestral morphology of the stinkhorn fruiting bodies. Although basidiospore maturation occurs within the enclosed fruiting bodies of the stinkhorn, the elevation of the mature sporeproducing tissue represents an independent origin of the stipe among Basidiomycota. Comparisons are made between previous and new classification schemes, which are based on the results of phylogenetic analyses. Based on the results of these analyses, a new subclass Phallomycetidae, and two new orders, Hysterangiales and Geastrales, are proposed.
Hosaka, Kentaro; Bates, Scott T.; Beever, Ross E.; Castellano, Michael A.; Colgan, Wesley, III; Dominguez, Laura S.; Nouhra, Eduardo R.; Geml, Jozsef, Giachini; Admir J.; Kenney, S. Ray; Simpson, Nicholas B.; Spatafora, Joseph W.; Trappe, James M. 2006. Molecular phylogenetics of the gomphoid-phalloid fungi with an establishment of the new subclass Phallomycetidae and two new orders. Mycologia. 98(6): 949-959.