Measuring changes in stress and vitality indicators in limed sugar maple on the Allegheny Plateau in north-central Pennsylvania
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Canadian Journal of Forest Research. 32: 629-641.
A study established in 1985 in north-central Pennsylvania to determine effects of lime fertilization on declining sugar maple (Acer saccharum Marsh.) was evaluated in 1993 and showed that liming positively affected growth and crown vitality in sugar maple. This effect of lime on sugar maple offered an opportunity to assess other indicators of tree vitality and their response to lime additions. Foliar polyamines, starch and soluble sugars in root tissues, and cambial electrical resistance (CER) at breast height were evaluated. Foliar putrescine, soluble sugars, and CER decreased, while starch increased in lime-treated trees. Changes in these indicators were correlated with tree growth and crown vitality, which improved in limed plots. However, they were more highly correlated with lime-induced changes in foliar and soil elements and soil pH. Putrescine, soluble sugars, and CER decreased and starch increased, as Ca and Mg and molar ratios of Ca/Al and Mg/Mn increased and as Al and Mn decreased in both soil and foliage, and as soil pH increased. Results showed the beneficial effect of lime on tree vitality that was not reflected in visual assessments of crown vitality and demonstrated the potential utility of these physiological and biochemical measures as indicators of vitality in sugar maple.
Wargo, Philip M.; Minocha, Rakesh; Wong, Betty; Long, Robert P.; Horsley, Stephen B.; Hall, Thomas J. 2002. Measuring changes in stress and vitality indicators in limed sugar maple on the Allegheny Plateau in north-central Pennsylvania. Canadian Journal of Forest Research. 32: 629-641.