Precipitation chemistry at the Marcell Experimental Forest in north central Minnesota
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Water Resources Research. 19(2): 454-462.
Concentration (milligrams and microequivalents per liter) values are presented for major ions occurring in rain and snow from July 1978 to July 1980. Ammonium, sodium, and calcium are the largest equivalent weight cations which are largely balanced by sulfate and nitrate anions. Hydrogen is the fourth most abundant cation; but high combined concentrations of other cations in 27% of the sample events mask positive correlations with high hydrogen concentrations. Field-measured pH averaged 4.3, but the range (3.5 to 6.5) fluctuated with a combination of earth and air mass conditions. When high cation (and anion) data are deleted, low pH correlates well with high nitrate. Sulfate concentrations are similar to those measured in 1936 and do not correlate with pH. Calcium and, to a lesser extent, ammonium tend to increase pH values. High nitrate values also correlate positively with high excess acidity, while high sodium and calcium values correlate with high excess alkalinity.
Verry, Elon S. 1983. Precipitation chemistry at the Marcell Experimental Forest in north central Minnesota. Water Resources Research. 19(2): 454-462.