The mediating effects of values on the relationship between outdoor recreation participation and pro-environment behavior
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In: Schneider, Ingrid E.; Chavez, Deborah; Borrie, Bill; James, Katherine, eds. The 3d symposium on social aspects amnd recreation research; 2000 February 16-19; Tempe, AZ. Tempe, AZ: Arizona State University: 39-42
Environmental awareness has increased in the past two decades. One factor believed to influence this awareness is outdoor recreation participation. We examined whether participation in outdoor recreation predicts pro-environmental behavior and whether environmental values mediate the relationship. A survey of residents of Washington state measured (a) participation in outdoor recreation, (b) environmental values, and (c) proenvironmental behavior. Factor analysis of recreation activities resulted in the following four "types": "resource-utilization" activities, "nature-appreciation" activities, "backcountry-adventure" activities and "technology-dependent" activities. Participation in "resource-utilization" activities had a significant, negative relationship to pro-environmental behavior, while "nature-appreciation" and "backcountry-adventure" activities had significant positive relationships with pro-environmental behavior. Participation in "technology-dependent" activities was not related to pro-environmental behavior. The relationship of Participation in "resource-utilization" activities and "backcountry-adventure" activities with pro-environmental behavior were mediated by environmental values. This suggests that participation in these activities may help form environmental values. The relationship between participation in "nature-appreciation" activities and pro-environmental behavior was maintained while controlling for environmental values indicating effects beyond that contributed by environmental values. Finally, some outdoor activities may not tap into broader environmental values. Such may be the case with "technology-dependent" activities which were not related to pro-environmental behavior. The relationship between outdoor recreation participation and pro-environmental behaviors appears complex. Information on people's levels of involvement and their motivations for participating may improve our understanding of this relationship.
Keywordsmediating effects; values; relationships; outdoor recreation; pro-environmnet behavior
Bright, Alan D.; Barro, Susan C. 2000. The mediating effects of values on the relationship between outdoor recreation participation and pro-environment behavior. In: Schneider, Ingrid E.; Chavez, Deborah; Borrie, Bill; James, Katherine, eds. The 3d symposium on social aspects amnd recreation research; 2000 February 16-19; Tempe, AZ. Tempe, AZ: Arizona State University: 39-42