Exotic aquatic and terrestrial animals in the Hoosier-Shawnee ecological assessment area
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Gen. Tech. Rep. NC-244. St. Paul, MN: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, North Central Research Station. 267 p.
We reviewed the impact of exotic aquatic and terrestrial wildlife on ecosystems within the Hoosier-Shawnee Ecological Assessment Area. Recent collections within the assessment area have demonstrated that faunal diversity is expanding rapidly from the intentional and unintentional release of nonindigenous species. We report on the origin, status, trends, habitat associations, and distribution of 58 exotic species including 44 fish or invertebrate species, 5 hybrid fish species, and 9 terrestrial vertebrates. The aquatic species include 19 species from the Midwest used in stocking programs, 6 from Asia or Eurasia, 5 from the Gulf coast, 3 from the Atlantic coast, 4 from South America, 2 from the Pacific coast, and 1 from the Southeastern United States. Five of these species are hybrids that originated in aquaculture facilities or hatcheries. Six non-native species were released or stocked in the assessment area in the 1950s, another three in the 1960s, and another fifteen in the 1970s when the releases peaked in the area. Releases and some natural dispersal from origins along the Gulf coast have continued throughout the 1980s, 1990s, and into the 21st century. The majority of exotic terrestrial vertebrates found in the assessment area originated in Europe, Asia, or Africa. Only one species, the house finch, is native to North America. Three species were intentionally introduced to the Eastern United States, four species were intentionally introduced with subsequent escapes resulting in established feral populations, and two species dispersed naturally into the area. All of the terrestrial exotics reviewed in this chapter are well adapted to, and flourish in association with, human habitation.
KeywordsHoosier National Forest, Shawnee National Forest, wildlife, exotic, communities
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Burr, Brooks M.; Basile, Cynthia M.; Adams, Ginny L.; Nicholson, Matthew C. 2004. Exotic aquatic and terrestrial animals in the Hoosier-Shawnee ecological assessment area. Gen. Tech. Rep. NC-244. St. Paul, MN: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, North Central Research Station. 267 p.